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3fi Sfifi 



Lewis Bealer 




By Bertram W. H. Poole 

"Stamps of the German Empire" 









Price 35c 









The Stamps of the Cook Islands, Stamp Collector's 

Guide, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Hong Kong, 

Sierra Leone, Etc. 






In beginning this series of articles 
little is required in the way of an intro- 
ductory note for the title is lucid 
enough. I may, however, point out that 
these articles are written solely for the 
guidance of the general collector, in 
which category, of course, all our boy 
readers are included. While all im- 
portant philatelic facts will be recorded 
but little attention will be paid to minor 
varieties. Special stress will be laid on 
a study of the various designs and all 
necessary explanations will be given so 
that the lists of varieties appearing in 
the catalogues will be plain to the most 
inexperienced collector. In the "refer- 
ence list," which will conclude each 
chapter, only > s.ucji s. f arfif>s; Hifl >e in- 
cluded as may; ie,'con&tfJdrekt ;"e,ssntial" 
and, as such,' coming 'within 'the scope 
of the.'phJlaJtetist'lcoUeetijig on ^ene^l 
lines. .V. .' I.* I V: ' *: ; ! ; " : 

The' subject 'will be divided into "the 
four main sections under which the 
stamps are usually classified, viz : (a) 
the separate issues for the German 
States; (b) the issues for Germany 
proper; (c) German stamps overprinted 
for use in the foreign post-offices; and 
(d) the stamps for the German 





The grand-duchy of Baden is a com- 
paratively small territory, having an 
area of 5,821 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about two millions. It is 
bordered by the Rhine on the south and 
west, Wurtemberg on the east, and 
Bavaria on the north. Until the early 
part of the 19th century it played an in- 
significant part in European politics, but 
when Austria and Prussia were at war 
it sided with Austria. The results were 
disastrous, for when the tide of battle 
turned in favor of Prussia it found it- 
self burdened with a huge war indem- 
nity. It was forced to remodel its army 
on Prussian lines and join the North 
German Confederation. In the Franco- 
German war its troops fought on the 
German side, and in due time it be- 
came a part of the new German Em- 
pire. The grand-duchy has three votes 
in the Federal Council, and elects four- 
teen deputies to the Imperial Diet. The 
existing grand-duchy of Baden is a 
continuation and development of the 
ancient duchy of Swabia or Alemannia, 
principally through the two dynasties of 
the margreaves of Baden-Baden and 
Baden-Durlach. In 1803 the ruling mar- 
greave of the united (1772) dynasties 
was made an elector of the empire, and 
in 1806 he proclaimed himself a sov- 
ereign grand-duke. The town of Baden 
is world famous for its mineral waters 
and baths. Though the healing virtues 
of the waters were known to the Romans 
(Aquae Aureliae) it only came into re- 
pute as a health resort about a century 
ago. It has a population of less than 
20,000, but it is estimated that its an- 
nual visitors amount to at least four 
times that number. 

In tracing the philatelic history of 
Baden in the "Adhesive Postage Stamps 
of Europe" the late Mr. W. A. S. 
Westoby wrote : 

The postal administration of the 
Grand Duchy of Baden was formerly 

in the hands of the house of Thurn 
and Taxis ; but the wars of the French 
Revolution, followed by those of the 
First Empire, so dislocated the service 
that Baden, in common with some of 
the other German States, withdrew 
from the Thurn and Taxis monopoly, 
and established an independent postal 
administration. Since December 31st, 
1871, the separate administration of 
Baden has ceased to exist, and the 
Post Office is now under the control 
of the general postal administration 
of the German Empire. 
So long as it continued to issue post- 
age stamps of its own the currency of 
Baden was the florin, equal to about 40c, 
divided into 60 kreuzer. 


On April 6th, 1850, the governments 
of Austria and Prussia established a 
Postal Convention for the interchange 
of correspondence at fixed rates and 
other German States were invited to 
join the Union. Among other things 
the Articles of this Convention stipu- 
lated that, as a rule, correspondence 
should be prepaid and that such pre- 
payment should be effected by means of 
postage stamps as soon as practicable. 
Baden at once agreed to join the Union 
but as the sanction of the Legislative 
Assembly was necessary before the 
grand-duchy could officially become a 
member matters were delayed until the 
meeting of that body in the autumn of 
1850. The Legislative Assembly gave 
its consent and also sanctioned the issue 
of postage stamps. In the meantime 
enquiries had been made regarding the 
safest and most economical method of 
manufacturing stamps so that directly 
legal enactment was given to the recom- 
mendation to join the Union, the 


authorities were in a position to pro- 
ceed with the manufacture of suitable 
labels. It was decided to issue four 
values Ikr, 3kr, 6kr, and 9kr and Mr. 
C. Naumann, of Frankfort, was com- 
missioned to engrave the dies while the 
paper was obtained from a local paper- 
maker. It was decided that the most 
economical method would be to print 
all values in black but use paper of a 
different color for each. Mr. Westoby 
states that "the ,die & s were engraved on 
copper ui ^relief,- antt ^oheisied of two 
parts: thk numeral of J value; was in the 
centr^ on,a circular ground, the pattern 
of \wjiifrirJ varfcit 1h; each value; while 
the rectangular, frame: was tfyi same for 
all the values." 

At the top we find "Baden" in German 
capitals; at the bottom is "Freimarke", 
meaning "Free stamp"; at the left is 
"Deutsch: Oestr : Postverein", signify- 
ing "German Austrian Postal Union"; 
and at the right is "Vertrag v. 6 April, 
1850", meaning "Convention of April 
6th, 1850". The latter date, as already 
explained, refers to that on which the 
Postal Union was established. 

The dies for the four values were 
completed by Naumann on Dec. 20th, 
1850, and 100 electrotypes were taken 
from each of them, except of the Ikr 
of which only fifty electros were cast. 
It was decided to print the Ikr in 
sheets of 45, in five rows of nine, and 
the other values in sheets of 90, in ten 
rows of nine. The extra cliches were 
kept in reserve in case any of the others 
should become damaged or worn and 
have to be replaced. The paper was 
machine-made, wove, and differed in 
color for each value. The paper for 
the Ikr was buff; that for the 3kr was 
orange; that for the 6kr bluish green; 
and that for the 9kr was rose-red 
showing a faint tinge of violet. The 
stamps were imperforate. 

The stamps were printed by the 
University printer, Mr. Hasper, of 
Carlsruhe, ordinary black printers' ink 
being employed. By the end of Febru- 
ary, 1851, a supply considered sufficient 
to last a year was ready but for some 
reason or other the stamps were not 
placed in issue until May 1st. The de- 
mand for stamps being much greater 
than had been anticipated the first sup- 
ply was exhausted in less than three 
months and a further supply had to be 
printed. This second impression was 
ready in August and the paper used 
for the 3kr and 6kr differed in tint 
from that originally used. The color 
of that for the 3kr was yellow and that 
for the 6kr yellow-green. The plates 
differed also, the reserve cliches being 
added, so that the Ikr was printed in 

sheets of fifty and the other values in 
sheets of one hundred. The additional 
electrotypes were so added that the 
horizontal rows contained ten instead 
of nine specimens. 

A well authenticated error of the 9kr 
is known this being printed on the 
bluish green paper of the 6kr. It is 
an exceedingly rare stamp and it is pre- 
sumed that only one sheet was printed. 

Reprints of the Ikr, 3kr, and 6kr 
were made in 1867 and, except to an 
expert, these are very difficult to dis- 
tinguish from originals. The shades 
differ slightly, the paper for the Ikr 
and 3kr is thicker and the gum is white 
and smooth instead of being brown and 
crackly like the gum on the originals. 
Care should, therefore, be exercised in 
the purchase of unused specimens. 

c crence List. 
May 1st, 1851. Black on colored paper. 

1. Ikr on buff, Scott's No. 1. 

2. 3kr on orange-yellow, Scott's Nos. 2 & 2a. 

3. 6kr on green, Scott's Nos. 3 & 3a. 

4. 9kr on lilac-rose, Scott's No. 4. 


Another printing of the stamps of the 
numeral type took place in 1853. The 
color of the Ikr not being considered 
satisfactory it was decided to print this 
value on plain white paper. At the 
same time, to reduce the cost of pro- 
duction, fifty additional cliches were 
made so that this value could be printed 
in sheets of 100 like the others of the 
series. In this printing, also, the 3kr 
and 6kr exchanged colors though for 
what reason is not clear unless there 
was some idea that these values might 
be confused with the similar denomi- 
nations for the kingdom of Wurtem- 
berg. No public notice of the change 
of colors was given but the information 
was conveyed to the post-offices in a 
general order dated June 3rd, 1853, as 
follows : 

You are hereby informed of a new 
impression of the postage stamps 
which will be sent you in a few days 
from the Grand Ducal General Post- 
office, in which the colours are 
changed, for the 6kr yellow, for the 
3kr green, and white for the Ikr. All 

the Postoffices are informed of these 
changes, in order to render mistakes 
impossible. The new stamps are 
not to be sold to the public till the 
stock of the old ones is entirely 

From this notice it is plain that the 
new stamps could not have been issued 
prior to June 3rd, 1853 and as a matter 
of fact none of the values were used 
until 1854. The Ikr was issued in Jan- 
uary of that year while the other 
values were placed on sale in the fol- 
lowing month. 

Later printings were made in 1854, 
1855, and 1857 the colors remaining the 
same. Before the printing of 1857 
took place complaint was made of the 
difficulty experienced in gumming the 
3kr value. The manufacturers attrib- 
uted this difficulty to the color of the 
paper and recommended paper of a new 
tint be used, blue being the color sug- 
gested. As, however, a large quantity 
of the green paper remained in stock 
and the paper maker would only take 
this back as "waste" it was decided to 
use this up before making any change. 
In 1858 another printing was made 
and the suggested change of color then 
took place. No notice of this change 
of paper to either public or officials has 
been found but from a study of dated 
specimens it seems proved that the blue 
3kr was issued in December, 1858. 

All four varieties were reprinted in 
1867 and, like the reprints of the 1851 
issue made at the same time, their de- 
tection is a difficult matter only possible 
to one who has made a special study 
of the stamps. The paper of the Ikr 
and 3kr is thicker than that used for 
the originals, the shades of all four 
are slightly different, and the gum is 
white and smooth. 

Reference List. 

1854-58. Imperforate. 

5. Ikr black, Scott's No. 6. 

6. 3kr black on green, Scott's No. 7. 

7. 3kr black on blue, Scott's No. 9. 

8. 6kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 8. 


After the last printing of the numeral 
stamps, which took place in 1859, the 
electrotypes had become so worn that 
it was evident new sets would have to 
be made for all values before further 
printing could take place. The neigh- 
bouring kingdom of Wurtemberg had 
adopted a new design showing the 
Arms of the State and as other 
countries were contemplating the 
adoption of more elaborate designs it 
is hardly surprising that the Baden 

Government was also considering the 
advisability of replacing its plain nu- 
meral stamps with something more 
striking. As new plates were required 
anyway the time was opportune for a 
change. In an excellent article appear- 
ing in the Philatelic Record for 1894 
we read 

The Postal Administration sent in 
its report to the Government of the 
Grand Duchy on 21st June, 1859, set- 
ting forth the necessity of having 
fresh plates provided for printing 
the stamps, as those in use were worn 
out, and that the question had arisen 
whether the design should not be 
changed; that the present design was 
antiquated; that the printing on col- 
ored paper was not clear, nor were 
the stamps safe from imitation; that 
it would be better that the stamps 
should be printed on white paper in 
colors according to their values, and, 
as was then done elsewhere, the 
country should be denoted by the 
head of its Sovereign or its Arms ; 
and that in order to render the 
stamps perfect, secure from imitation, 
and their separation readier, they 
should be perforated as in England 
and France. 

The report was approved by the Min- 
istry and on June 29th, 1859 the Postal 
administration was authorised to obtain 
the necessary dies for the new issue; 
to purchase white paper for printing 
the stamps; "to furnish the outer edges 
of the stamps with perforation, so as 
to facilitate their separation," and not 
to print any more stamps in the old 
designs but to use up all existing 

From motives of economy it was de- 
cided to join with Wurtemberg in the 
purchase of a perforating machine. 
This was obtained from Vienna at a 
cost of 1200 florins ($480.00) and set up 
at Carlsruhe for the joint use of both 

Immediate steps were taken to pro- 
cure suitable dies for the new issue 
and a specification detailing what was 
required was sent to two engravers 
Ludwig Kurz, of Frankfort, and Fried- 
erich Eckard, of Carlsruhe. According 
to this specification the design was to 
be a square of 7 l /2 Baden lines, or 23^2 
mm., there was to be one original die 
on steel or copper for each value, and 
from each of these 110 electrotypes 
were to be made "of the thickness of 
a Baden copper kreutzer" and mounted 
on metal. It was stipulated that proofs 
should be sent and that the engraving 
should be corrected if required. The 
engravers were desired to specify the 

price at which they would undertake 
the work. With each specification a 
carefully executed drawing of the pro- 
posed design in Indian ink was en- 
closed. Quoting from the article in the 
Philatelic Record again we read: 

The engraver Eckard declined to 
undertake the order under the con- 
ditions,' but on the 15th July, Ludwig 
Kurz, of Frankfort, offered to under- 
take the work at the price of 10 
florins for each die, and 48kr for 
each of the 110 electro-casts of each 
value. The cost of the whole would 
therefore be 392 florins ($156.80)'. 
The order was given to Kurz on 24th 
August, 1859, and in October follow- 
ing he sent in a proof of the 3kr 
stamp. Some alterations were ordered 
to be made, and on 8th November 
he was informed that he might pro- 
ceed with the other original dies. 
On the 23rd November he sent proofs 
of the 1, 3, 6, and 9kr, and he then 
proceeded with the electro-casts, 
which he delivered by the 23rd Decem- 
ber 111 of each value, except that 
of the 3kr, of which he delivered 110. 
Kurz states that he engraved the 
original dies on copper in relief with 
the aid of aquafortis and that the draw- 
ing from which he worked was fur- 
nished by Herr Klimsch, of Frankfort. 

The design shows the Arms of Baden 
with supporters within a square frame 
on a horizontally lined ground. In the 
upper border "BADEN" is shown; in 
the lower "KREUZER" preceded by a 
numeral appears ; at the left reading 
upwards is "FREIMARKE" (Free 
stamp) ; and at the right reading down- 
wards is "POSTVEREIN" (Postal 
Union). All the inscriptions are in un- 
colored Egyptian capitals on a solid 
ground, and the angles are filled with 
rosaces. The plates consisted of 100 
electrotypes arranged in ten horizontal 
rows of ten, the extra cliches being 
held in reserve in case any of the others 
became worn or damaged. 

In February, 1860, the printer, Has- 
per, was asked to submit color trials of 
the various denominations. This order 
he complied with and, as they were not 
approved, he submitted further ones 
later on. On March 22nd, he was in- 

formed that the following colors had 
been chosen: "For the Ikr, good Eng- 
lish black printer's ink; for the 3kr, 
Berlin blue; for the 6kr, dark chrome 
yellow; and for the 9kr, light Munich 
cochineal lake. He was directed to 
make special efforts to keep the tints 
in the various printings quite uniform 
an order to which he paid no particu- 
lar attention. Plain white wove paper 
was used for this issue and, the question 
of gumming being under consideration, 
half of the first supply was gummed 
with an Austrian adhesive matter made 
of bone-glue, and the other half was 
gummed with the mucilage used in Sax- 
ony a mixture of Syriac gum and 
glycerine. The latter was found the 
most satisfactory and it was used for 
all subsequent supplies. The perforat- 
ing machine gave a gauge of 13 l / 2 and 
was so constructed that an entire sheet 
of 100 stamps could be perforated at 

The Ikr and 3kr were the first values 
to be printed and these appear to have 
been in use as early as June 1860, 
though the catalogues give the date of 
issue as 1861. As there were large 
stocks of the old 6kr and 9kr numeral 
stamps, which it was decided to use up, 
the corresponding values of the Arms 
type were not in use until fairly late 
in 1861 while they were not in general 
circulation throughout the grand-duchy 
until the following year. There were 
several printings of all values resulting 
in several strikingly different shades for 
the 3kr and 6kr. Of the former a print- 
ing in Prussian blue is distinctly rare 

In 1862 the perforating machine was 
overhauled and fitted with a new set 
of punches which gave a gauge of 10 
in place of the previous IS 1 /^. The ex- 
act date at which this took place is not 
known but it was sometime between 
March and June. Supplies of all stamps 
printed in June or later are, therefore, 
perforated 10. 

In March 1861 the Prussian Postal 
Administration addressed a circular to 
the various States forming the German 
Austrian Postal Union proposing that 
uniform colors should be adopted for 
stamps of the same or corresponding 
values. This applied only to the stamps 
in use for the three rates of postage 
equivalent to 1, 2, and 3sgr, and so far 
as Baden was concerned this affected 
all but the Ikr. The colors decided on 
were rose for the 3kr, blue for the 6kr, 
and brown for the 9kr. Baden agreed 
to the proposition which came into ef- 
fect just prior to the alteration of the 
gauge of the perforating machine. 
About this period, too, some modifica- 

tion of the design was under discussion. 
Following the many changes round 
about this date in strict chronological 
order is likely to result in confusion 
and it will, therefore, be simpler to 
deal, first of all, with the changes as 
they affected the stamps of the type 
with lined background. None of the 
3kr stamps in the new rose color were 
printed in this type for reasons we shall 
detail later on. Although supplies of 
the 6kr and 9kr in the new colors of 
blue and brown respectively were or- 
dered in December 1861, none appear 
to have been delivered until the sum- 
mer of 1862. Notwithstanding this 
fact an official notification of the change 
of colors was made to postmasters on 
Jan. 29th, 1862, and this has thus 
(though erroniously) been frequently 
stated as the date of issue. As a matter 
of fact the 6kr could not have been 
used earlier than August, 1862, while 
the 9kr does not appear to have been 
in general circulation until the follow- 
ing year. 

Reference List. 

1860-63. No Watermark. Perf. 13% or 10. 

9. Ikr black, Scott's No. 10 or 15. 

10. 3kr blue, Scott's No. 11 or No. 12. 

11. 6kr orange, Scott's No. 13 or 13a. 

12. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 16. 

13. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 14. 

14. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 17 or 17a. 


After the printing of the 3kr stamps 
in June 1861 it was found that, although 
little more than 60,000 sheets had been 
supplied from first to last, the cliches 
had become too badly worn to be of 
further use. As a new set was neces- 
sary advantage was taken of this fact 
to ascertain whether a modification of 
the design would not improve the ap- 
pearance of the stamps. Kurz was sup- 
plied with two of the cliches to see 
what he could do and from one of these 
he removed every alternate line of the 
background and from the other he 
erased the lines entirely so that the 
Arms stood out on a plain rectangle. 
The latter was considered such an im- 
provement that the original dies of all 
four values were returned to Kurz for 
attention. The renovated dies were 

ready for use early in August 1861 but 
as only the 3kr was immediately neces- 
sary Hasper was instructed to prepare 
110 cliches for the new plate for this 
denomination. A first printing of the 
3kr in the new type was ordered late 
in 1861 and a first delivery of 2000 
sheets was made in March 1862. These 
stamps arrived at the period when the 
overhauling of the perforating machine 
had been decided on but there was such 
urgent need for 3kr stamps that this 
supply was perforated before the new 
punches were fitted. We thus find the 
3kr of this issue perforated 13^ as 
well as 10 like the other values. With 
the 13 1 /2 gauge the stamp is quite a 
rarity unused and fairly scarce used. 

We have already referred to the fact 
that the dies for the Ikr, 6kr and 9kr 
had the background removed in 1861 
but it was not until the close of the year 
1863 that Hasper found it necessary to 
construct plates from the altered dies. 
He now made 110 cliches of each value 
.to be ready for the printing of 1864 
though none of the new 6kr were de- 
livered until April of that year while 
the Ikr and 9kr were not supplied un- 
til June. On the 17th of June, 1864, 
a circular was sent to the various post- 
offices stating that the new postage 
stamps of 6 and 9 kreuzer, with plain 
background, would be supplied from the 
General Post Store in the next quarter, 
and the Ikr stamps of similar design 
in the following quarter. From this 
order it is evident the 6kr and 9kr could 
not have been in use prior to July or 
the Ikr until October 1864. Other print- 
ings took place later on and as the 
printer apparently made no special en- 
deavor to keep the colors of the print- 
ing inks uniform quite a wide range of 
shades may be found in all except the 
Ikr denomination. Of these the rarest 
is the 6kr in a Prussian blue like that 
of the similar tint found in connection 
with the 3kr of the preceding issue. 
The 3kr is known imperforate while 
the 9kr in the bistre shade has been 
found printed on both sides. 

We now retrace our steps a little to 
1861 when the alteration of design and 
change of colors was under discussion. 
In the same year a desire was expressed 
for stamps of a higher value than 9kr, 
the first step being taken by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce of Mannheim, who 
proposed to the Baden Ministry of 
Commerce that 18kr and 30kr stamps 
should be created. Although the use of 
the then current 12kr and 18kr en- 
velopes had been very restricted the 
Ministry decided to introduce 18kr and 
30kr labels and Kurz was commissioned 
to supply the necessary dies for these 

values. The dies, which were in the 
design with plain background, were de- 
livered on October, 28th, 1861, and Has- 
per at once proceeded to make the 
cliches for the printing plates. The 
colors decided on were green for the 
18kr and cinnabar-red for the 30kr. 
After a small number of sheets of the 
higher value had been printed Hasper 
reported that "the cinnabar-red was not 
fit for printing from galvano-plastic 
plates, as the quicksilver acted injuri- 
ously on the copper." He was conse- 
quently ordered to print this value in 
orange for the future. Whether the 
stamps in cinnabar-red were placed in 
use or not is not certain. Westoby 
lists it as haying been issued and if 
his statement is correct the stamps in 
this color must be of extreme rarity. 
Other printings were made from time 
to time though neither of the values 
seems to have been in very great de- 
mand. The total quantity of 18kr printed 
was 315,200 and of these 151,012 were de- 
stroyed in July, 1870 as the new postal 
rates made the value absolutely useless. 
The total supply of the 30kr stamps 
numbered 430,400 and though compara- 
tively few were used, and the stamp 
is rare in this condition, it is common 
enough unused as the remainders were 
sold to a dealer some years later. 

.Reference List. 

1862-64. No Watermark. Perf. 13 y 2 (3kr 
only) or 10. 

15. Ikr black, Scott's No. 19. 

16. 3kr rose Scott's Nos. 18, 20, or 20a. 

17. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 21 or 22. 

18. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 23 or 23a. 

19. 18kr green, Scott's No. 24. 

20. 30kr orange, Scott's No. 25. 


At the end of 1867 the North German 
Postal Confederation, which was then 
formed, established a new scale of rates 
to take effect from January 1st, 1868. 
The rate on letters weighing under *4 oz. 
was fixed at 3kr and that on heavier 
letters up to l / 2 oz. at 7kr. The latter 
rate also applied to letters sent to 
Switzerland, Belgium, and North 
America by way of Prussia, and later 
on it was extended to other foreign 
countries. The necessity of creating a 
new stamp of 7kr was at once apparent. 
The Baden Post Office in recommend- 
ing the issue of this new value at the 
same time suggested the withdrawal of 
the 18kr value and reported that there 
was sufficient stock on hand of the 6kr, 
9kr, and 30kr to last for years. The 

stock of the 18kr was, therefore, with- 
drawn and destroyed as we have already 
stated. It was decided to issue a 7kr 
stamp as recommended and Maier an 
engraver of Carlsruhe was entrusted 
with the task of preparing the die. As 
the inscription "POSTVEREIN," on 
the right-hand side of the frame, no 
longer applied, the word "FREI- 
MARKE" was subsituted. It will be 
noted that the inscriptions are in thicker 
type than before (especially as regards 
"BADEN") and the value at foot is 
contracted to "KR". The work is al- 
together much inferior to that of Kurz. 
At the same time it was decided to 
alter the designs of the Ikr and 3kr to 
correspond with the new 7kr. It would 
appear that Maier only engraved one 
matrix, with the numerals of value 
omitted, and from this the three sec- 
ondary dies required were constructed. 
Although the new rates were effective 
as and from January 1st, 1868, the 7kr 
stamps were not ready for issue until 
October and the modified Ikr and 3kr 
were issued about the same time. An 
official notice, dated September 1868, 
was circulated to the post-masters inti- 
mating them of the change of design, 
viz : 

A printing of three sorts of stamps 
from a new die will be ready this year. 
These are the stamps of 1 and 3 kreu- 
zer, and a new value of 7 kreuzer. 
The design is the same as before, ex- 
cept that the word FREIMARKE is 
repeated in the right side of the frame, 
in place of POSTVEREIN as here- 
tofore. The value is indicated by a 
numeral, and the letters KR. 

The colours of the new issue are 
1 kreuzer green, 3 kreuzer red, as 
before, and the 7 kreuzer blue, but 
of a darker tone than the present 6 
kreuzer stamp. The delivery of the 
new 1 kreuzer stamp to the Post- 
offices has. already begun, and that of 
the 3 kreuzer will follow as soon as 
the old stamps in the chief depots 
have been exhausted. The delivery of 
thej kreuzer stamps will follow at the 
beginning of the next quarter, and, un- 
less otherwise ordered, in the quan- 
tities necessary for each of the Grand 
Ducal Post-offices. 

There were further printings of these 
stamps in the years 1869, 1870, and 1871. 
On December 31st of the latter year 
the Postal Administration of Baden 
ceased to exist as a separate institution, 
and on January 1st, 1872, its stamps 
were superseded by those of the German 

Reference List. 
1868. No watermark. Perf. 10. 
21. Ikr green, Scott's No. 26. 
L'L'. : % ,kr rose, Scott's No. 27. 
23. Tkr blue, Scott's No. 28. 


In 1850 a rural post was established 
in Baden, its chief object being to oper- 
ate a messenger service connecting rural 
villages which had no post-offices of 
their own with the nearest State Post- 
office. It had an organisation of its 
own, distinct from the State Post, but 
to which, nevertheless, it was an ad- 
junct. In the year 1862 a Grand Ducal 
decree was issued, under the date of 
26th September, authorising improve- 
ments in connection with this rural post 
and Ikr, 3kr, and 12kr stamps were or- 
dered to be prepared for its use. These 
stamps are of similar design showing 
large numerals in the centre with 
"LAXD-POST" above and "PORTO- 
MARKE" below. An ornamental bor- 
der completed this very unpretentious 
design. All were printed in black on 
yellow wove paper and perforated 10. 
The inscription "Porto-marke" indi- 

cates they were postage due stamps but 
they were not postage due stamps in 
the ordinary meaning of the term. 
These labels were used solely in con- 
nection with the rural post and in ad- 
dition to being used to collect deficient 
postage, they were used to collect the 
delivery charge on parcels, and for va- 
rious purposes such as the collection and 
conveyance of money. At this period the 
Post-office collected taxes and, in some 
instances, debts due to tradesmen. For 
this service it charged a commission 
fixed at the rate of Ikr per florin and 
this commission was denoted by means 
of these rural post stamps. The stamps 
were not sold to the public but were 
used only by officers of the rural post. 

The stamps are scarce used, especially 
the 12kr but they are common enough 
unused owing to the fact that in 1873 
Julius Goldner, of Hamburg, purchased 
the remainders consisting of 322,800 of 
the Ikr, 455,400 of the 3kr and 160,000 
of the 12kr. 



Reference List. 
No watermark. Perf 10. 
Ikr black on yellow, Scott's No. 29. 

25. 3kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 30. 

26. 12kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 31. 


Bavaria, or Bayern, is a kingdom of 
the German Empire, consisting of two 
detached portions the smaller being 
west of the Rhine, between Alsace- 
Lorraine, Rhineland and Hesse-Darm- 
stadt; and the larger east of the Rhine, 
between, Bohemia, Austria, Switzerland, 
Wurtemberg, and Baden. It has an 
area of 29,286 square miles and a popu- 
lation well in excess of six millions, the 
majority of whom are Roman Catholics. 
Bavaria forms a hereditary constitu- 
tional monarchy, the legislative power 
being invested in the king and two leg- 
islative chambers. The kingdom has 
six votes in the federal council and 
sends forty-eight members to the Im- 
perial Diet. 

Baiern, or Boiaria, land of the Bpii, 
overrun by Rome of the early empire, 
was divided into three provinces 

Rhaetia, Vindelicia, and Noricum. On 
the breakup of the Roman power, the 
country, occupied by the Teutonic tribe 
of Baguwarians (Bavarians) at the 
close of the 5th century, was ruled 
by dukes, first elective, then hereditary. 
After a struggle of two . hundred 
years, Bavaria, absorbed by the 
Franks, was ruled by Charlemagne, who 
left his descendants as margraves (788- 
900) to hold the marches against Hun 
and Bohemian. 

The title of duke was restored (920) 
for services rendered to the empire, and 
Bavaria helped the Emperor Otto I. to 
defeat the Huns at Augsburg. In the 
middle ages there were constant quar- 
rels between duke and emperor; and 
the towns, which were either imperial 
or free (Augsburg, Nuremberg), eccle- 
siastical (Bamburg), or ruled by princes 

(Baireuth), rose into importance 
through the transit of Italian trade 
northwards, and again declined owing 
to the development of sea-borne com- 
merce. During the same period the 
boundaries of Bavaria underwent con- 
tinual change. 

In 1180 Frederick Barbarossa con- 
ferred the duchy on Otto, Count of 
Wittelsbach, founder of the present 
Royal house. Maximilian I. (1598- 
1623) was made elector, and received 
the northern half of Bavaria, owing to 
Tilly's victory over the elector Palatine. 
The French defeat of Blenheim (1704) 
was shared by Bavaria, but after the 
treaty of Utrecht (1713) the elector 
was re-instated in his dominions. There- 
after Bavaria oscillated between the 
French and German alliance, being in- 
vaded (1796) by Moreau, who occu- 
pied Munich; siding with Napoleon I., 
who created Maximilian Joseph I. a 
king (1805-6) ; and, subsequently, se- 
cured in her new dignity by the allies, 
helping to overthrow her benefactor 
(1813). In 1866 Bavaria sided with 
Austria in the Austro-Prussian war, 
and had to pay the penalty of its choice 
in the shape of an indemnity and the 
cession of territory to Prussia. 

In 1886 the throne of Bavaria passed 
to Otto Wilhelm Luitpold who, how- 
ever, owing to mental incapacity has 
never taken any active part in the gov- 
ernment of his kingdom. His uncle, 
Prince Leopold, was appointed Regent 
and was virtually ruler until the time 
of his death a few months ago at the 
advanced age of 90 years. 

Although Bavaria became a member 
of the German Empire in 1870, she re- 
tained certain independent privileges, 
amongst them being the sole control of 
her postal system. Bavaria is the only 
German State to still issue its own dis- 
tinctive postage stamps for Wurtem- 
berg, which for a long period also is- 
sued its own stamps, relinquished the 
privilege on April 1st, 1902. 

Bavaria was the first of the German 
States to adopt adhesive postage stamps, 
its pioneer labels appearing in 1849. 
From that date until 1876 the currency 
of the kingdom was the florin of 60 
kreuzer worth about 40c in United 
States money. In 1876 the Imperial 
currency of pfennige and marks was 


An ordinance of King Maximilian, 
dated June 5th, 1849, authorised the 
issue of postage stamps and fixed the 
rates of postage. Local letters and 

printed matter were carried for 1 
kreuzer, subject to certain limitations 
of weight; the rate on ordinary single 
letters (weighing not more than 1 loth 
or %oz.) was fixed at 6kr for distances 
up to 12 German miles; while 6 kreuzer 
was the charge for carrying single let- 
ters for longer distances. Postage 
stamps of these values were, therefore, 
prepared and, according to an elaborate 
"code of instructions" dated October 
25th, 1849, these were to be placed on 
sale on November 1st following. The 
only items we need reproduce are those 
concerning the prepayment of letters 

1. From the 1st November next 
the prepayment of matter sent 
by post in the interior of Ba- 
varia must be effected exclusive- 
ly by stamps, which the Postal 
Administration is entitled to sell 
according to Art. VII of the 
Royal Ordinance of June 5th; and 
for the correspondence, the marking 
of the postage on the seal-side of the 
letter, prescribed up till now, must 
be stopped. 

2. The stamps intended for the 
prepayment bear the figures of the 
single rates, according to the new 
tariff for the interior of Bavaria, of 
1 kreuzer in black, of 3 kreuzer in 
blue, and of 6 kreuzer in brown-red 
colors. Each stamp of the last two 
kinds carries in itself a red silk 
thread running from top to bottom, 
as evidence of its genuineness. 

The design, common to all three 
values, shows a double lined numeral, 
ornamented with arabesques, within a 
square frame. In the top border is 
"BAYERN" (Bavaria), in. the bottom 
one is "FRANCO" (Free), at the right 
is "KREUZER", and at the left the 
value in words "EIN", "DREI", or 
"SECHS". In the small squares in the 
angles the value is denoted in figures on 
a checkered ground. The large central 
numeral on the Ikr is on a ground of 
mazework which occupies the whole of 
the interior square. In the case of the 
3kr and 6kr the numerals are on a circu- 
lar ground of solid color, this circle be- 
ing flattened where it meets the inner 
lines of the border, thus causing the 
type generally known as "broken circle." 
The spandrels, or spaces in the angles, 
are filled with arabesque ornamentation. 
The designs were drawn by Mr. P. 
Haseney, and the dies were engraved 
on steel by Mr. F. J. Seitz, of Munich. 
The printing plates were constructed of 
separate blocks or cliches struck from 
the original dies and clamped together 
in a printer's chase. For the plate of 
the Ikr the casts were taken in ordinary 


type-metal there being ninety of these 
in all, arranged in ten horizontal rows 
of nine. The printing plates for the 
3kr and 6kr also consisted of ninety 
impressions but these were arranged in 
two panes of 45 each (nine rows of 
five) placed side by side. The cliches 
for these values were struck in brass 
at the Mint and these impressions were 
soldered on to bars of iron in rows of 
five. The stamps were printed by Mr. 
J. G. Weiss, of Munich. 

The Ikr was printed on ordinary 
white wove paper, but for the other two 
denominations a special greyish-white 
paper was employed, in the fabric of 
which red threads were introduced. 
This paper, known as "Dickenson" 
paper from the name of its inventor, 
had the threads arranged at intervals 
of 20 mm. so that one thread appeared 
in each stamp. According to a writer 
in the Philatelic Record for March, 

The threads were introduced into 
the paper lengthways of the continu- 
ous roll, and not inserted between 
t\vo laminae of the pulp, but were 
pressed into the pulp as it reached 
the "couching rollers," which, aided 
by the suction boxes, remove the 
greater part of the remaining water, 
and turn the sheet of pulp into one 
of paper. It was evidently intended 
that the thread should be especially 
visible on the back of the stamp, and 
impressions which shew it on the 
front are frequently classified sepa- 
rately by philatelists as being ex- 
ceptions to the rule, and constituting 
varieties, due only, however, to the 
printer having taken the impression 
on the wrong side of the paper. 
The plate of the Ikr soon showed 
signs of wear owing to the comparative 
softness of the type-metal of which it 
was composed. Consequently, about 
September, 1850, a new plate was made 
for this value the cliches of which were 
made of brass similar to those employed 
for the 3kr and 6kr. The new plate had 
Jthe ninety stamps arranged in two panes 
of forty-five each. Only 2000 sheets 
were printed from this new plate when 
it was decided to alter the color and 
also to adopt a design conforming to 
that of the other denominations. These 
later impressions of the Ikr taken from 
the brass plate can be distinguished by 
the greater sharpness and clearness of 
the design. The color is also a more 
intense black than that used for the 
earlier printings. 

The Ikr is known with silk thread in 
the paper. This variety is a proof or 
essay but that it is of considerable 
rarity may be judged from the fact that 

Gibbons prices it at $30. The Ikr is 
recorded as existing in a tete-beche 
pair but whether this is a true tete- 
beche, caused by the inversion of one 
of the cliches on the plate, or due to 
two impressions (one upside down in 
relation to the other) being printed on 
the same sheet of paper, I cannot say. 

The 6kr stamp of this issue is an ex- 
ceedingly rare variety unused. The 3kr 
may be found in a number of distinctive 
shades of which the deeper tints are 
much the rarer. 

There are no reprints of these stamps. 



Reference List. 

1 Nov. 1849. No watermark. The 3kr and 
6kr have a silk thread in the paper. 

1. Ikr black, Scott's No. 1, or No. la. 

2. 3kr blue, Scott's No. 2, No. 2a, or No. 


3. 6kr brown, Scott's No. 4. 


In April, 1850 Bavaria joined the 
German-Austrian Postal Union and as 
the rate on single letters between the 
states belonging to the convention had 
been fixed at 9 kreuzer, arrangements 
had to be made to issue a label of this 
denomination. Its approaching issue 
was announced by a Post-office notice, 
dated 25th June, 1850, and it was ac- 
tually placed in use on July 1st, 1850. 
The design of this new 9kr is very 
similar to that of the 3kr and 6kr of 
1849 with one important exception 
the circle containing the large central 
numeral is a perfect sphere and not 
flattened where it touches the frame 

The die was probably engraved by 
Seitz and the plate was constructed by 
the ordinary electrotype process. It 
consisted of two panes placed side by 
side. Each pane was composed of 45 
casts arranged in nine rows of five, 
with vertical and horizontal lines be- 
tween them, and a single line around 
the whole. The plate was backed with 
type metal so as to render it quite solid. 
The color chosen was yellow green but 
a printing was made in a pale blue 
green a shade that is of considerable 
rarity unused. The stamps were im- 
perforate and printed on the paper with 
silk threads. 


An official notice, dated October 1st, 
1850, announced that the color of the 
1 kreuzer stamp would be changed from 
black to rose. But not only was the 
color changed but the design was 
altered to conform with that of the 
other denominations. It was similar to 
that of the 9kr; the circle being com- 
plete and not intercepted by the inner 
lines of the inscribed border. The 
plate was made by the same process, 
the sheets consisted of ninety stamps 
in two panes as in the case of the 9kr, 
and the same silk-thread paper was 

A new plate was also constructed for 
the 6kr, this likewise having the circu- 
lar ground complete. At what date 
this was brought into use is uncertain 
but probably some time in 1851. 

On July 19th, 1854, a Government 
notice was issued intimating that a 
stamp of higher value than 9kr would 
be issued for the general convenience 
of the public, and on August 1st fol- 
lowing, an 18kr stamp made its ap- 
pearance. In design, method of manu- 
facture, etc., this value corresponds to 
those already described. 

A postal convention between Bavaria 
and France came into operation on 
July 1st, 1858, it being mutually agreed 
that the postage on a letter not exceed- 
ing 10 grammes in weight should be 
12kr. A new stamp representing this 
rate was placed on sale in Bavaria on 
the day the new convention came into 
force, the design corresponding to 
that of the other values then current. 

The 3kr underwent no change either 
of design or color so this denomination 
does not exist with completed circle. 
As it was in use from 1849 until 1862 
it may be found in a wide range of 

Reference* List. 

1850-58. A silk thread in the paper. Imperf. 

4. Ikr rose, Scott's No. 5. 

5. 6kr brown, Scott's No. 3. 

6. 9kr green, Scott's No. 6, or No. 6a. 

7. 12kr red, Scott's No. 7. 

8. 18kr yellow, Scott's No. 8. 


An official notice, dated July 6th, 
1862, announced that on October 1st 
following, various changes would be 
made in the colors of the different 
values, viz. 

The 3 kreuzer, taken as equivalent 
to 5 Austrian neugroschen or 1 sil- 
bergroschen, will for the future be 
printed in rose instead of blue. 

The 6 kreuzer, equivalent to 10 
Austrian neugroschen or 2 silber- 

groschen, will be printed in blue in- 
stead of brown. 

The 9 kreuzer, equivalent to 15 
Austrian neugroschen or 3 silber- 
groschen, will be printed in light 
brown instead of green. 

The colors of the remaining values 
will be altered from the same date as 
follows : 

The 1 kreuzer, from rose to yellow. 
The 12 kreuzer, from red to green. 
The 18 kreuzer, from yellow to 

vermilion red. 

The change in the colors of the 3, 6, 
and 9 kreuzer was made so that these 
denominations would correspond to 
those of the other signatories to the 
German-Austrian postal union and this, 
of course, necessitated the changes in 
the other values to prevent confusion. 
The exact dates of issue of the new 
varieties is not known. All we know 
is that the stamps in the new colors 
were placed on sale as the stocks in 
the former tints became exhausted. 
The stamps were printed from the 
same plates as before and in most of 
them considerable variation of shade 
may be found. The 6kr in ultramarine 
is a rare shade worth looking for. 

This completes the history of the 
"numeral" stamps of Bavaria but be- 
fore dealing with the later issues it will 
be as well to refer to certain varieties, 
printed in black on colored paper, so 
that there may be no misunderstanding 
as to their status should any of our 
readers come across them. We can best 
do this by reprinting the following para- 
graph from the Philatelic Record: 

It was the custom in Bavaria to 
make up the stamps for the supply of 
the post-offices into packets of fifty 
sheets, and these were placed in cov- 
ers of various colored paper, on which 
a copy of the stamp, with the number 
of sheets and stamps in the packet, 
was printed in black. No order for 
this is found among the official docu- 
ments relating to the earlier issues, 
but the system continued in use till 
the close of the numeral issues. 
During the period which commenced 
subsequently to the issue of the 1 
kreuzer, type II, down to October, 
1862, the color of the paper for the 
1 kreuzer was gray, that for the 3 
kreuzer was blue, that for the 6 
kreuzer was brown, that for the 9 
kreuzer was green, that for the 12 
kreuzer was red, and that for the 
18 kreuzer was yellow. The stamps 
impressed on the covers had no postal 
value whatever, and were simply 
printed on the covers as an indication 
of the particular value of the stamps 
contained in them. 


Reference List. 

1862. A silk thread in the paper. 


9. Ikr yellow, Scott's No. 9. 

10. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 10. 

11. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 11. 
1 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 12. 

13. 12kr green, Scott's No. 13. 

14. 18kr red, Scott's No. 14, or No. 14a. 


The adoption of a new design for the 
stamps of Bavaria evidently involved 
much serious consideration for, though 
the idea was mooted in the early part of 
1865 and proofs were actually existent 
twelve months later, it was not until 
January 1st, 1867, that the stamps were 
really issued. The approaching change 
was 'announced by means of a Govern- 
ment Notice dated December 14th, 1866, 
the salient provisions of which were as 
follows : 

With the Royal approval a new is- 
sue of postage stamps has been pre- 
pared, which will be issued according 
to the consumption of the stock of 
the existing values. 

The new stamps are, like the 
former, printed in color on white 
paper traversed by a red silk thread, 
and bear the Royal Arms of Bavaria, 
with the two supporters in white re- 
lief on a colored ground, and with 
the numeral of value in each angle. 
The stamps will, like the former, be 
issued for the values of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 
and 18 kreuzer. 

The colors of the stamps of 3, 6, 
9, and 18 kreuzer are, as in the former 
issue, carmine-red, blue, light brown, 
and vermilion-red; the stamps of the 
1 kreuzer are green in place of yel- 
low, and those of 12 kreuzer violet 
in place of green. 

The delivery of the new stamps to 
the post-offices will be in sheets of 
60 pieces, and in larger quantities in 
packets of 50 sheets. 
The design consists of the Arms of 
Bavaria surmounted by a Royal crown 
with lions as supporters. Under the 
Arms is scroll ornamentation with 
"KREUZER" in small capitals below; 
while above is the name "BAYERN." 
The preceding details are on a back- 
ground of solid color and of somewhat 
eccentric shape. In the angles are num- 
erals in white on solid colored discs 
to denote the various values, while the 
spandrels are filled with ornamental 
scrolls. In referring to the change of 
design the Stamp Collectors' Maga- 
zine, made the following interesting 
comments on stamp designs in general : 

The substitution of an elegant de- 
sign like this for the existing prosaic 
figure, is matter for congratulation. 
That a stamp may be ornamental as 
well as useful, is a proposition which 
most postal administrations now show 
their acquiescence in. Economic rea- 
sons are, we fear, too much in favor 
of armorial bearings as a device for 
stamps; but for our part, while ac- 
knowledging the excellence of the 
change from figures to arms, we must 
confess we should prefer to see the 
features of foreign sovereigns on a 
larger number of stamps than at 
present bear them. The objection to 
the employment of our own Queen's 
effigy on her colonial stamps, that 
the frequent repetition is monotonous 
and tiresome, would not hold good in 
respect to continental monarchs, over 
whose dominions the sun sets in the 
ordinary course of nature. 
The original or matrix die was en- 
graved on steel by Peter Reiss, a medal 
coiner employed at the Royal Mint. The 
secondary dies, on which the numerals 
of value were engraved, and the brass 
blocks which formed the printing plates 
were also struck at the Mint. 

The plates were constructed by a pro- 
cess similar to that employed for the 
numeral series. Each plate consisted 
of sixty brass cliches arranged in two 
panes of thirty each (6 rows of 5) 
placed side by side. A space about the 
width of a stamp separated the panes. 
The design was embossed in slight re- 
lief on a colored ground the series be- 
ing a particularly attractive one. The 
paper was similar to that used for the 
preceding issues, having silk threads em- 
bedded in its substance in such a man- 
ner that one thread was apportioned 
to each vertical row of stamps. It is 
probable that the use of this paper pre- 
vented the adoption of perforation 
which, at that period, was in general 

There is a well-known minor variety 
of the Ikr in which the numeral in the 
upper right hand corner has a distinct 
colored stroke across the centre. 

On January 1st 1868, a new postal 
arrangement was made with the North 
German Confederation, Wurtemburg, 
and Baden involving a postal rate of 
7kr. Later this rate was extended to 
include the agreements with Denmark 
and Belgium and the natural outcome 
was the issue of a 7 kreuzer stamp. 
The issue of this new value was an- 
nounced in a Government decree dated 
August 30th, 1868, and at the same time 
it was decreed that the color of the 
6kr would be changed to brown so as 


to avoid confusion with the 7kr. These 
new varieties were placed on sale on 
October 1st and a month later the 9kr 
was withdrawn from use and the 6kr 
in the old color of blue was demonetised. 
The new 7kr value was similar in de- 
sign, impression, and paper to the other 
denominations of the series. 

All values of this issue are said to 
exist on laid paper and as such are re- 
corded in Scott's catalogue. M. Moens, 
in a note in his catalogue observed 
that "the paper is found with fine lines 
resembling laid paper." It seems quite 
certain that J:he variety is not a true 
laid paper but is merely due to some 
slight imperfection in manufacture. 
The "laid" and "wove" varieties may 
be found on the same sheet and the 
former is generally considered of such 
minor importance as to be hardly 
worthy the attention of even an ex- 
treme specialist. It would, therefore, 
appear that the "laid" paper varieties 
are hardly worthy of catalogue rank. 

Most of the stamps of this issue pro- 
vide considerable variation in shade. 

ference List. 

1867-68. Embossed. Silk thread in paper. 

15. Ikr green, Scott's No. 15 or 15a. 

16. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 16. 

17. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 17. 

18. 6kr bistre, Scott's No. 21. 

19. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 22. 

20. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 18. 

21. 12kr mauve, Scott's No. 19. 

22. 18kr red, Scott's No. 20. 


Although, as we have previously ob- 
served, Bavaria was the first of the Ger- 
man States to issue postage stamps it 
was the last to make use of any provi- 
sion for their easy separation. This was 
apparently due to the fact that the silk- 
thread paper was considered such an ex- 
cellent safeguard against counterfeiting 
that the authorities were loth to give 
it up. At last, however, the obvious 
convenience of perforation made its 
adoption indispensable and the silk- 
thread paper was replaced by a new 
watermarked paper. A Government No- 
tice dated June 12th, 1870, stated that 
a new issue of postage stamps of the 
values of 1, 3, 6, 7, 12, and 18 kreuzer 

would be made and issued as soon as 
existing stocks of the old series were 
exhausted. It was stated that the paper 
would no longer contain the red silk 
threads and that the stamps would have 
the edges indented, but no mention was 
made of the watermark. The stamps 
were ready for issue on July 1st, and 
were placed on sale just as quickly as 
the corresponding values of the im- 
perforate series were sold out. The 
same plates were used, and the same 
colors were retained, the differences be- 
ing confined to the watermark and per- 
foration. The watermark consisted of 
a number of crossed lines forming a dia- 
mond pattern generally known as 
"lozenges." There are two varieties of 
this watermark in one of which the 
diamonds or lozenges are 17 mm. wide, 
while in the other they are narrower 
and only measure 14 mm. in width. 
Gibbons catalogues both varieties in 
full applying much higher prices to the 
variety with narrower lozenges. Both, 
however, occurred on the same sheet 
so that the philatelic importance of the 
differences is not particularly great. The 
paper was intended to be horizontally 
laid but on the majority of specimens 
it is exceedingly difficult to find any 
trace of the laid lines, though they are 
generally quite plain on the margins of 
the sheets. This appears to be due to 
the fact that the intersecting lines form- 
ing the lattice watermark were so much 
heavier than the "laid" lines on the 
dandy roll that they received most of 
the pressure and, consequently, while 
they were deeply indented into the paper 
the horizontal lines of wire to which 
they were stitched made no impression 
at all. The paper is, therefore, best de- 
scribed as wove. 

As the same"" plates were used as for 
the 1867-68 series it follows that the 
stamps were printed in sheets of sixty 
divided into two panes of thirty each. 

The perforating machine was so con- 
structed that an entire pane of thirty 
stamps was perforated at one opera- 
tion, the gauge being 11^2. 

In 1872 certain revisions were made 
in the postal tariff a Post-office Notice 
dated November 30th, stating that for 
the future the rate on single letters to 
France, Great Britain, Norway, Portu- 
gal, Spain, Constantinople, and the 
United States via Bremen or Hamburg, 
would be 9 kreuzer ; and that the rate 
to Italy, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, Alex- 
andria, and the United States via 
Cologne, would be 10 kreuzer. As these 
rates could not be made up by existing 
values except by the use of two stamps 
it was announced that labels of these 
denominations would be issued. At the 
same time it was stated that owing to 


the limited use for the 12 kreuzer stamp 
no more of this value would be printed. 
On December 31st the provisions of this 
Notice came into effect the 12kr being 
withdrawn and the new 9 and 10 kreuzer 
stamps being placed on sale. Of these 
the 9kr was printed in pale brown and 
the lOkr in yellow. The plates were of 
similar size to those of the other de- 
nominations and the paper and perfora- 
tion were also similar. 

Late in 1876 Bavaria, in common with 
many of the other German States, de- 
cided to make a clean sweep of its ob- 
solete postage stamps, envelopes, etc. 
According to an article in the Monthly 
Journal the lot was placed on sale in 
October, 1876, and in addition to a list 
of the quantities of the different varie- 
ties a lengthy note was added of which 
the following is a summary : 

All these articles, which were with- 
drawn from use on January 1st, 1876, 
have been stamped with an oblitera- 
tion dated June 30th of that year; no 
reprints will be made; offers may be 
submitted for the whole stock, for the 
whole of one or more kinds, or for 
fixed quantities of different kinds 
separately. Offers must be sent in 
by January 1st, 1867, after which the 
Government will announce its deci- 
sion. Preference will be given to the 
largest offers. 

Xo account will be taken of tenders 
submitted by firms or individuals who 
have no domicile in Germany or Aus- 
tria-Hungary, unless they are vouched 
for by some firm domiciled in Bavaria, 
and of sufficiently high standing. 
The entire lot was purchased by Mr. 
G. Zedmeyer, of Nuremberg, though 
the price paid was not made public. 
The lot included the following remain- 
ders of the issue we are now discuss- 


6kr bistre, 
9kr pale brown, 
12kr mauve, 




2.-,. Gkr bistre, Scott's No. 25. 

2>. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 26. 

27. 9kr pale brown, Scott's No. 27. 

28. lOkr yellow, Scott's No. 28. 

29. 12kr mauve, Scott's No. 29. 
:;o. 18kr red, Scott's No. 30. 


On August 5th, 1874, a new stamp of 
1 mark was issued, the value being ex- 
pressed in Imperial currency. This de- 
nomination was specially intended for 
the prepayment of the rate on large 
parcels and packages within the Union 
of the German States. The die was en- 
graved on steel by Herr P. Reiss, medal 
coiner to the mint, and the stamps were 
printed at the Mint of Munich. The 
design shows the Royal Arms, with sup- 
porters, surmounted by a crown and 
resting on a scroll pattern base. Above 
the crown is "BAYERN" in a curve, 
and under the base "MARK" in large 
capitals, the whole being embossed on a 
ground of solid color. In each of the 
four corners the value is expressed 
by a large "1" embossed in white on a 
disc of horizontal lines. 

The plate was constructed in the 
same way as those for the other values 
but consisted of fifty stamps arranged in 
five horizontal rows of ten. The same 
watermarked paper was used but as 
the stamps were of extra large size 
(measuring 25 mm. by 21 mm.) the im- 
pression fell very irregularly over the 
watermark, the paper, of course, being 
originally intended for stamps of much 
smaller size. 

The stamp was at first issued imper- 
forate as the only perforating machine 
available was not adapted for use on 
such large stamps. A new machine was 
ordered capable of perforating an entire 
sheet of fifty stamps at a time and on 
April 1st, 1875, the perforated stamps 
made their appearance. The gauge is 
similar to that of the lower values, viz. 

Reference List. 

1870-72. Embossed. Wmk. crossed lines. 1874-75. 

Perf. Iiy 2 . 

23. Ikr green, Scott's No. 23. 
LM. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 24. 

Reference List. 

Embossed. Wmk. crossed 

31. 1 mark mauve, Imperf., Scott's No. 31. 

32. 1 mark mauve, Perf. 11^, Scott's No. 




Towards the close of the year 1875 
a change was made in the watermark 
of the paper, the crossed lines being 
superseded by a uniform pattern of un- 
dulating lines (placed horizontally) set 
8^2 mm. apart. The paper was hori- 
zontally laid but as the watermark made 
such a heavy impression the laid lines 
of the paper are frequently impossible 
to detect. The same paper was used 
for the envelopes and wrappers which 
up to that time had been printed on 
plain paper. The same plates were used 
as for printing issue five and the colors 
and perforation also correspond to that 
series. The 1, 3, 7, 10, and 18 kreuzer 
values were printed on this paper and 
were placed on sale some time in No- 
vember, 1875. They had but a short 
life, for on January 1st, 1876, they were 
withdrawn and replaced by a new series 
with values in Imperial currency. 

Among the remainders sold in 1876 

the following quantities of the stamps 

of the issue under notice were included: 

Ikr green, 942,000 

3kr rose, 1,470,000 

7kr blue, 321,000 

lOkr yellow, 120,000 

18kr red, 99,000 




Reference List. 

Wmk. undulating horizontal 
Perf. \\y z . 

Ikr green, Scott's No. 33. 

3kr rose, Scott's No. 34. 

7kr blue, Scott's No. 35. 
lOkr yellow, Scott's No. 3G. 


37. 18kr red, Scott's No. 37. 


Until the close of the year 1875 all 
the stamps issued in Bavaria, with the 
single exception of the 1 mark value 
issued in 1874, had the values expressed 
in South German currency but, with the 
idea of creating greater uniformity, the 
Imperial currency of marks and pfennige 
was introduced on January 1st, 1876. 
This, of course, necessitated the issue of 
new stamps and particulars of the new 
series were announced in a Post-office 
Notice dated December 9th, 1875. We 
take the following summary of its con- 
tents from the Philatelic Record: 

"The stamps will be issued: 
Value of 3 pfennige in light green. 
5 dark green. 

10 ' carmine red. 

20 blue. 

25 red-brown. 

50 ' vermilion red. 

1 mark in violet. 

2 marks in orange yellow. 

The new stamps, like that of 1 mark, 
will be embossed with the Royal Arms 
in oval shields, with the supporters 
and crown, and the name BAYERN 
above the crown in white on a colored 
ground. The value of the stamps will 
be expressed in figures in relief in the 
four angles, and the denomination 
PFENNIG or MARK in relief under 
the Arm? 

The postage stamps with value in 
pfennig are of the same size as those 
of the former issue in kreuzer, and 
will be delivered to the Post-offices in 
sheets of 60. Those of 2 marks are 
of the same size as those of 1 mark, 
and will be delivered in sheets of 50." 

The original dies for the new series 
were engraved on steel by Herr P. 
Reiss at the Mint of Munich and the de- 
sign of the lower values, as will be un- 
derstood from the above description, is 
very similar to that of the 1 mark of 
1874 but on a smaller scale. The die 
for the 2 marks was a subsidiary one 
made by taking an impression from the 
1 mark and altering the corner numerals. 
The plates were of similar size to those 
of the preceding issue and they were 
constructed in a similar manner. 

The paper was watermarked with the 
undulating lines placed %y 2 mm. apart 
as in the case of the stamps of 1875 and, 
while it was apparently intended to be 
laid, the "laid" lines are very faint or 
fail to show at all. This, as already ex- 
plained, was due to the greater pressure 
exerted on the pulp by the watermarked 
lines sewn on the dandy-roll. There was 
such a large supply of the 1 mark stamps 
on hand that it was not until 1879 it was 
necessary to print this value on the paper 
watermarked with wavy lines. 

In consequence of the similarity of 
color of the 3pf and 5pf it was decided 
to change the latter and on December 
4th, 1878, a Post-office Notice was pub- 
lished announcing the issue of the 5 
pfennige stamp in violet and at the same 
time it was stated that the color of the 50 
pfennige would be changed from ver- 
milion to dark brown. The new stamps 
were ready on January 1st following and 
they were sold as the stocks of the old 
colors were used up. 

The same perforating machines one 
for the pfennig and one for the mark 


values were used as before, both 
gauging ll l / 2 . 

The 1 mark stamp of this series is an 
extremely rare variety unused, though 
in used condition it is comparatively 

51. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 51. 

52. 25pf bistre-brown, Scott's No. 52. 

53. 50pf brown, Scott's No. 53. 

54. 1 mark mauve, Scott's No. 54. 
.">. 2 mark orange, Scott's No. 55. 

Reference List. 

1875-79. Wmk. undulating horizontal lines. 
Perf. 11^. 

38. 3pf green, Scott's No. 38. 

39. 5pf dark green, Seott's No. 39. 
4i>. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 46. 

41. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 40. 

42. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 41. 

4::. 25pf yellow brown, Scott's No. 42. 

44. fiOpf vermilion, Scott's No. 43. 

4.".. ;"JOpf brown, Scott's No. 47. 

46. 1 mark mauve, Scott's No. 44. 

47. 2 mark orange, Scott's No. 45. 


Some time during the latter part of 
the year 1881, the contract for supply- 
ing the paper for postage stamps, which 
had up to then been held by the Pasing 
Mill, was awarded to the Munich- 
Dachau Paper Manufacturing Company 
a concern equipped with more modern 
machinery and able to turn out a better 
grade of paper. At the time of this 
change it was also decided to alter the 
style of watermark. A new dandy-roll 
was ordered from England and this 
made a watermark of zig-zag lines run- 
ning in a vertical direction down the 
stamps, the lines being spaced about 7 l / 2 
mm. apart. This paper was white wove 
and the improved appearance of the 
stamps showed it was of better quality 
than that previously used. No altera- 
tion was made in the colors of the va- 
rious denominations and the perfora- 
tion remained the same as before. The 
first stamps on the new paper were 
ready for issue about November, 1881, 
and they were placed on sale as the 
stocks of the old varieties became ex- 
hausted. It is probable that all except 
the 2 marks were in use before the end 
of the vear. The 2 marks did not ap- 
pear until 1891. 

Reference List. 

1881-91. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close 
together. Perf. 11 y 2 . 

48. 3pf green, Scott's No. 48. ' 

49. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 40. 

50. lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 50. 


Although the Imperial currency was 
issued in 1876 the pfennige values con- 
tinued to be printed in the small sheets 
of 60 and these did not altogether fit 
in with a decimal currency. It was de- 
cided, therefore, to alter the size of the 
sheets and in January 1888 some of the 
values made their appearance in sheets 
of 100 and before long all the pfennige 
stamps had appeared thus. The stamps 
were divided into two panes of fifty 
(five rows of ten) placed one above the 
other. An interval about the height of 
a stamp was left between the panes and 
across this space two thick horizontal 
lines were printed. The plates being of 
a new size the paper had to be cut ac- 
cordingly and, to avoid unnecessary 
waste, it was found best to cut the 
paper so that on the printed stamps the 
watermarked wavy lines run in a hori- 
zontal instead of perpendicular direc- 
tion. Naturally this change in the size 
of the sheets made the perforating ma- 
chine, which had been constructed to 
perforate a pane of thirty stamps at a 
time, of no use and a new one had to be 
ordered. This one was also on the har- 
row principle and perforated an entire 
pane of fifty stamps at one operation 
but the punches were smaller and placed 
closer together so that the gauge is 
14^ in place of the 11^ found in con- 
nection with previous issues. No alter- 
ation in the size of the sheets of the 
mark values was made so that the water- 
mark on these is vertical. 

An official notice issued by the Post 
Office authorities under date December 
23rd, 1889, foreshadowed several changes 
of color. It was stated that the 3pf would 
be issued in brown, the 5pf in green, the 
25pf in orange and the 50pf in red- 
brown. The result of these changes 
was to make a more marked distinc- 
tion between the colors chosen for the 
various denominations and it also gave 
the 5pf its proper Postal Union tint. 
These new varieties were placed on sale 


as the stocks of the old ones were used 
up. Their actual date of issue is in- 
definite but all four were probably on 
sale by March, 1890. 

Early in 1900, the set was enriched by 
the addition of four new values 2pf, 
30pf, 4Qpf, and 80pf. They were prob- 
ably placed on sale on January 1st. In 
design, watermark, perforation, and 
size of sheets they correspond exactly 
to the values previously described. 

About this period it was noticed that 
paper of a whiter appearance was be- 
ing used but these are listed as separ- 
ate varieties in Gibbons' catalogue, the 
distinction is one of comparatively little 
importance. Most of the values of this 
series provide a pleasing array of shades. 

Reference List. 

1888-1900. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close 

together. Perf. U%. 
2pf grey, Scott's No. 66. 
3pf green, Scott's No. 56. 
3pf brown, Scott's No. 62. 
5pf mauve, Scott's No. 57. 
5pf green, Scott's No. 63. 
lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 58. 
20pf blue, Scott's No. 59. 
25pf bistre-brown, Scott's No. 60. 
25pf orange, Scott's No. 64. 
30pf olive green, Scott's No. 67. 
40pf yellow, Scott's No. 68. 
50pf brown, Scott's No. 61. 
50pf marone, Scott's No. 65. 
80pf mauve, Scott's No. 69. 

Reference List. 

1903. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to- 
gether. Perf. Iiy 2 . 
72. 5pf green, Scott's No. 72. 



The necessity for stamps of a higher 
facial value than 2 marks resulted in 
the issue of 3 and 5 mark stamps on 
April 1st, 1900. These are exactly simi- 
lar in design to the 1 and 2 mark values 
and it is evident that the dies were 
secondary ones, struck from the matrix 
of the 1 mark, with the appropriate num- 
erals inserted in the angles. These 
stamps were also printed in sheets of 
fifty and the same perforating machine 
gauging 11 y 2 was used. The watermark, 
also, is perpendicular as in the case of 
the earlier mark stamps. 

Reference List. 

1900. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to- 
gether. Perf 11^. 

70. 3 marks, olive-brown, Scott's No. 70. 

71. 5 marks pale green, Scott's No. 71. 


Early in March, 1903, the 5 pfennige 
stamp appeared with the watermark 
vertical instead of horizontal. This is 
the only one of the small size stamps 
with the perforation gauging 14^ to ap- 
pear with the watermark in this position. 


In December, 1910, the four mark 
values appeared with the watermarked 
zig-zag lines horizontal instead of verti- 
cal. For what reason the change was 
made meaning, of course, that the paper 
was cut in a different way, is not 
known but there seems to have been 
only one printing for in the following 
year the portrait stamps made their ap- 
pearance. According to the Illustriertes 
Priefmarken Journal the quantities 
printed were as follows : 1 mark, 400,- 
000 ; 2 marks, 300,000 ; 3 marks, 200,000 ; 
and 5 marks, 100,000. 

Reference List. 

1910. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines, close to- 
gether. Perf. 11 */*. 

73. 1 mark, mauve, Scott's No. 73. 

74. 2 marks, orange, Scott's No. 74. 

75. 3 marks, olive-brown, Scott's No. 75. 

76. 5 marks, pale green, Scott's No. 76. 


On March 12th, 1911, Prince Leopold 
Regent of the kingdom of Bavaria, cele- 
brated his ninetieth birthday, and the 
event was marked by the issue of a new 
series of stamps bearing his portrait. 
The change was something in the nature 
of a revolution considering the Arms 
type had been in use for a period of no 
less than forty-four years. The Prince 
was born at Wurzburg on March 12th, 
1821, and his life and career were bound 
up with the historic episodes of modern 
Europe. Professionally Prince Leopold 
was a soldier but when his nephew, 
King Otto, succeeded to the throne in 
1886 he was appointed Regent owing to 
the mental deficiency of the ruler. 
Prince Leopold was regarded with the 
greatest affection by the people and his 
birthday was observed throughout Ba- 
varia with the heartiest enthusiasm. 
The special stamps issued to mark the 
event show two designs. That for the 
pfennig denominations shows a profile 
bareheaded portrait, looking to left, on 
a solid rectangular background. In the 
upper left corner of this rectangle 
figures of value are shown and in the 
top right angle are the letters "Pf". 
Above, on a narrow tablet of color, is 
the date "12 MARZ 1911", and at the 
base is the name "BAYERN" in 
colored capitals. The stamps vary in 
size, the lower values being smaller than 
those of a higher facial value. The 


mark stamps are of extra large size and 
show a portrait of the aged Regent look- 
ing to right. In this instance he is 
shown wearing a hat. On each side of 
the portrait are ornate columns, resting 
on corner rectangles of solid color, that 
on the left bearing the numeral of value, 
and the one on the right a letter "M". 
In the centre, at the top, is the date 
"r.)ll". The portraits are strongly 
drawn and are the work of the cele- 
brated German artist, Prof. Fritz von 
Kaulbachs. The stamps are printed by 
a process of photo-lithography. They 
were on sale some few weeks before the 
actual birthday celebration and after the 
31st March all previous issues were 

The stamps were printed on the paper 
watermarked with close zig-zag lines 
which has been in use since 1881. On 
the values from 3pf to 25pf inclusive, 
the lines are horizontal while on all 
others they are vertical. In what size 
sheets these stamps were printed we do 
not know (possibly 100 for the pfennig 
and 50 for the mark values) but it seems 
probable that a new perforating machine 
was brought into use. As we have al- 
ready shown the 14 l / 2 and 11^ machines 
used from 1888 and 1881 respectively 
were of the harrow kind and could, 
therefore, only be used for stamps and 
sheets of the size for which they were 
constructed. The values from 3 to 25pf 
are of the same size as the lower values 
of the preceding issue and it is evident 
the 14 l / 2 harrow machine was used for 
these; the 30pf to 80pf stamps are of 
the same size as the mark stamps of the 
Arms design and doubtless the old 11^2 
harrow machine was utilised for these ; 
but the mark stamps were too large for 
either of the existing perforating ma- 
chines and a new one, possibly a single 
line machine was used. We are not 
quite positive on the point as we have 
only single stamps to refer to but a 
single-line machine was certainly used 
for the next issue in which the stamps 
are of the same large size. 

A 60pf value in the same design as 
the others was added to the series in 
October, 1911, Bavaria, in accordance 
with its usual policy following Ger- 
many's lead in the issue of new values. 
The 5pf and^ lOpf values are known in 
tete-beche pairs these being from sheets 
printed for binding in book form. The 
same values may also be found with ad- 
vertisements attached, these also being 
from sheets intended for binding into 
stamp booklets. Most of the values 
exist in several pronounced shades. 

Prince Leopold died in the closing 
weeks of 1912 and was succeeded as Re- 
gent by his son, Prince Ludwig. So far 

this change has had no effect on Ba- 
varia's postal issues though it is 
rumoured that a new series is in prepa- 




Reference List. 

Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines. 


3pf brown on drab, Scott's No. 77. 
5pf green on green, Scott's No. 78. 
lOpf carmine on buff, Scott's No. 79. 
20pf blue on blue, Scott's No. 80. 
25pf chocolate on buff, Scott's No. 81. 
vertical zig-zag lines. Perf. 11 l /^. 
30pf orange on buff, Scott's No. 82. 
40pf olive on buff, Scott's No. 83. 
50pf marone on drab, Scott's No. 84. 
GOpf deep green on buff. 
80pf violet on drab, Scott's No. 85. 
1m brown on drab, Scott's No. 86. 
2m green on green, Scott's No. 87. 
3m crimson on buff, Scott's No. 88. 
5m deep blue on buff, Scott's No. 89. 
10m orange on yellow, Scott's No. 90. 
20m chocolate on yellow, Scott's No. 91. 


In June, 1911, two stamps were issued 
for use in the kingdom of Bavaria com- 
memorative of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the Regency of Prince Leo- 
pold. The portrait is somewhat simi- 
lar to that of the pfennig values of the 
birthday set this being enclosed by a 
large wreath held on each side by cupids. 
The dates "1886-1911" are shown on the 
wreath and in the lower angles are the 
figures "5" or "10" to denote the value. 
The name "BAYERN" is shown on a 
straight tablet between the figures. Each 
value is printed in three colors and they 
are somewhat extraordinary productions. 
The background is black, the ribbons 
binding the wreath are yellow, and the 
rest of the design is green for the opf 
and red for the lOpf. They have a 
crude cheap-looking appearance that is 


all the more marked on comparison 
with the delicate workmanship charac- 
terising the contemporary birthday 

The stamps are said to have been in 
use only a limited time. They were 
printed on unwatermarked paper and 
perf. lI l / 2 . These two labels conclude 
Bavaria's philatelic history to date. 

Reference List. 

June, 1911, No. wmk. Perf 

93. 5pf green, yellow and black, Scott's 

No. 92. 

94. lOpf carmine, yellow and black, Scott's 

No. 93. 


The first postage due stamps for 
Bavaria were set up from ordinary 
printer's type; the next issue was 
printed from plates made by the stereo- 
type process from "dies" set from type; 
and since 1876 stamps of the Arms type, 
printed in grey or greenish-grey, have 
been overprinted for this purpose. All 
are distinguished by the peculiar in- 
scription "Vom Empfanger Zahlbar", 
meaning "To be paid by the recipient", 
which is quite different from that found 
on the postage due stamps of any other 
country. The first "set" consisted of 
but one value 3 kreuzer and the issue 
of this was announced by means of an 
Official Notice dated September 22nd, 
1862. This decree is of considerable 
interest, as it explains in detail the 
method of using the stamps, so we ap- 
pend a translation supplied to Gibbons 
Stamp Weekly by Dr. Erich Stenger: 
Re the introduction of Postage Due 
stamps for Unf ranked Local Cor- 


On the 1st October of the current 
year the present system of marking 
by hand the amount of duty to be 
paid by the addressee on unfranked 
local correspondence will cease, and 
instead special Tax tokens (Postage 
Due stamps) will come into use, 
which must be affixed to the letter and 
which alone give a right to demand a 
tax on delivery. 

1. All letters to be considered as 
local correspondence which either: 

(a) are to be delivered in the town 
of the distributing office itself, or in 
the Rural post district belonging 
thereto, or 

(b) are dispatched from a place 
in the Rural post district to the post 
town itself, or to another place in 
the said Rural post district. 

2. The stamps to be used for such 
unfranked correspondence, instead of 
marking the amount in writing, bear 
the value 3kr (the single duty for de- 
livery in the Local or Rural post dis- 
trict), printed in black, on white 
paper, with a red silk thread running 
through it sideways. 

For correspondence which exceeds 
the weight payable by a single Tax 
Stamp, as many Postage Due stamps 
must be used to make up the amount 
which pays for that weight according 
to the tariff. 

3. In the case of letters posted in 
the post town the Postage Due stamps 
shall be affixed by the distributing of- 
ficer, in the case of letters handed to 
the postman in the Rural post district 
for delivery, by the postman; in all 
cases on the side bearing the address, 
after the manner of postage stamps. 
Omission to use the stamps not only 
gives every recipient of local corre- 
spondence the right to refuse the de- 
mand for payment, but will also be 
followed by commensurate penal pro- 
ceedings against the distributing offi- 
cer or postman concerned. 

4. The Postage Due stamps will be 
issued to the post offices from the 
Royal District Treasury in sheets of 
ninety stamps, and the same regula- 
tions hold good for their issue and 
use as in the case of postage stamps. 

5. For other unpaid correspond- 
ence which, not being part of the local 
deliveries, has to be dispatched from 
the distributing office to another post 
office, the method of marking the 
amount of tax by hand remains 

MUNICH, September 22nd, 1862. 

It will thus be seen from the forego- 
ing notice that the stamps were purely 
for local use and this system has re- 
mained practically unaltered to the 
present day. The stamps were printed 
in black on white paper, and were is- 
sued imperforate. The design is sim- 
ple in the extreme. In the centre is a 
large numeral "3" and in the rectangu- 
lar frame around this we find "Bayer. 
Posttaxe" (Bavarian Post Tax), at the 
top; "Vom Empfanger Zahlbar", at the 

bottom; and "3 kreuzer" reading up- 
wards at the left, and downwards at 
the right. All the inscriptions are in 
Gothic lettering. As we have already 
stated the design was set up from or- 
dinary printer's type, the sheet consist- 
ing of ninety stamps arranged in two 
panes of forty-five each (five horizontal 
rows of nine), placed one above the 
other. A space equal to about half the 
height of a stamp divides the panes and 
between the vertical rows lengths of 
printers' rule are inserted. The paper 
was the silk-thread variety used for the 
contemporary postage stamps but in 
these labels it is horizontal instead of 
vertical as in the postal issues. This is 
due to the different arrangement of the 
stamps the vertical rows of the Postage 
Dues occupying about the same area as 
the horizontal rows of the ordinary 

Naturally, as the plate for this 3kr 
stamp was set from type minor varie- 
ties abound. The only one of particular 
importance occurs on the fourth stamp 
of the second row of the upper pane. 
On this the final "r" of "Empfanger" is 
omitted. This, as the catalogue quota- 
tions indicate, is an exceedingly scarce 
variety. Those of our readers who 
wish to study this issue more deeply 
cannot do better than refer to the ex- 
cellent article in Gibbons Stamp Weekly 
(Vol. XI, pages 492 and 588) by Dr. 
Erich Stenger. 

We have already shown that the 
use of the silk thread paper was dis- 
continued, so far as the postage stamps 
were concerned, about July, 1870, and 
in its stead paper watermarked with 
crossed diagonal lines was used. At 
the same time perforation was intro- 
duced. This change affected the Post- 
age Due stamps in the following year 
a Royal Proclamation, dated March 30th, 
1871, announcing that new Ikr and 3kr 
Postage Due stamps would be issued 
and that they would be printed in black 
on watermarked paper and be per- 
forated like the contemporary postage 
stamps. Like the stamps of the Arms 
type they were printed in sheets of six- 
ty divided into two panes of thirty each 
(five rows of six) placed side by side. 
It is evident one original die (probably 
set up from type) served for both 
values. The design is similar to that 
of the first 3kr but with "Bayer" ab- 
breviated to "Bayr" and with larger 
lettering. The shape of the large num- 
eral "3", too, is quite different from that 
of the type-set variety. The matrix 
die, consisting of frame only, formed 
the foundation for the two necessary 
subsiduary dies in which the large nu- 

merals were inserted. From these suffi- 
cient casts were taken in type-metal to 
compose the printing plates. The same 
perforating machine was used as was 
employed to perforate the postage 
stamps. The use of the 3kr value has 
already been explained. The Ikr value 
was introduced to denote the sum to 
be paid by the recipient of certain offi- 
cial letters which had not been prepaid. 
While most official correspondence was 
carried free certain official local cor- 
respondence was subject to postage but 
at a reduced fee, and it was for the 
collection of deficient postage on the 
latter that the Ikr stamp was necessary. 

The change to the Imperial currency 
of pfennige and marks in 1876 led to 
the issue of new Postage Due labels. 
In the Post-pfnce Notice of December, 
1875, referring to the new postage 
stamps the issue of new 3pf, 5pf, and 
lOpf, Dues is also recorded. The lOpf 
took the place of the 3kr and was for 
use on unfranked private letters, while 
the 3pf and 5pf were intended to indi- 
cate the amount payable on unfranked 
dutiable official correspondence. The 
new stamps were formed by printing 
the ordinary postage stamps in ^grey 
and then overprinting them "Vom 
Empfanger Zahlbar" in two lines in 
red. They were, of course, like the 
contemporary postage stamps printed 
on the paper watermarked with zig-zag 
lines set horizontally and wide apart. 

In 1883 all three values appeared on 
the paper watermarked with vertical 
zig-zag lines close together, which had 
been introduced for the ordinary 
stamps about two years before. The 
lOpf provides three errors in the over- 
print viz. "Empfang", "Empfanper", 
and "Zahlhar". 

In 1889, again following the lead of 
the postage stamps, we find the Postage 
Due labels perforated 14 V and water- 
marked horizontal zig-zag lines placed 
close together. These, as a reference 
to the history of the contemporary 
.postage stamps will show, were printed 
in sheets of 100. The 3pf of this series 
is known with overprint inverted. In 
July, 1895, it was reported that a 2pf 
stamp was to be added to the set but 
this was not actually issued until some 
months later. The fear that this value 
would not be ready in time led to the 
issue of Bavaria's only provisional. 
On September 4th a small quantity of 
the 3pf value was surcharged in red 
with a "2" in each corner. As this 
variety is of some rarity its use must 
have been very limited. Since 1895 
Bavaria has issued nothing new in the 
way of Postage Due stamps. 

Reference List. 

1862. Type-set. Silkthread in paper. Imperf. 

95. 3kr black, Scott's No. 101. 
1871. Typographed. Wmk. crossed lines. 

Perl: Iiy 2 . 

96. Ikr black, Scott's No. 102. 

97. 3kr black, Scott's No. 103. 

1876. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines wide 
apart. Perf. 11^. 

98. 3pf grey, Scott's No. 104. 

99. 5pf grey, Scott's- No. 105. 

100. lOpf grey, Scott's No. 106. 

1883. Wmk. vertical zig-zag lines close to- 
gether. Perf. \\y z . 

101. 3pf grey, Scott's No. 107. 

102. 5pf "rey, Scott's No. 108. 

103. lOpf grey, Scott's No. 109. 

1888-95. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close 
together. Perf. 14^. 

104. "2" in red on 2pf grey, Scott's No. 114. 

105 2pf grey, Scott's No. 110. 

106 3pf grey, Scott's No. 111. 

107 5pf grey, Scott's No. 112. 

108 lOpf grey, Scott's No. 113. 


The only official stamps issued by 
the Kingdom of Bavaria is an unpre- 
tentious set issued in 1908 for the use 
of the Railway Department (Eisen- 
bahn). This consisted of the con- 
temporary 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 pfennig 
postage stamps overprinted with a large 
capital "E". The overprint is in green 
on the lOpf and 50pf, and in red on the 
other three values. 

Reference List. 

1908. Wmk. horizontal zig-zag lines close 
together. Perf. 14^. 

109. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 201. 

110. Tpf green, Scott's No. 202. 

111. lOpf carmine, Scott's No. 203. 

112. 2(>pf ultramarine, Scott's No. 204. 

113. 50pf marone, Scott's No. 205. 


We cannot conclude this short history 
of the postage stamps issued by the 
Kingdom of Bavaria without making 
some mention of the so-called Return 
Letter stamps. These labels used to be 
catalogued, are illustrated in some of 
the older printed albums, and are fre- 

quently found in collections and, conse- 
quently, are often a source of mystifi- 
cation to the tyro. These stamps are 
not postage stamps in any sense of the 
term but are labels which only relate 
to the internal economy of the post- 
office. We grant, however, that they 
are at least as collectible as "officially 
sealed" or the numbered labels used in 
connection with registered letters in 
many countries nowadays. 

When letters were unable to be de- 
livered they were sent to the chief 
office of the postal district. In 1865 
there were six of these offices; 
viz. Augsburg, Bamberg, Miinchen 
(Munich), Niirnberg, Speyer, and 
Wiirzburg. The letters were opened to 
discover the name of the sender and 
then returned, these return letter labels 
being used as seals to close the missives 
with. The labels were all printed in 
black on white paper and show the 
Royal Arms within an oval inscribed 
BRIEFE" (Returned Letter Depart- 
ment) and the name of the district 
chief office. This oval was enclosed in 
an upright rectangular frame with or- 
namented spandrels. The labels were 
printed by lithography in sheets of 84 
and those for each office differ slightly 
from the others, while for all, except 
Bamberg, there were two or three 
printings showing slight differences of 
design. In the case of the labels for 
Niirnberg two types exist on the same 


Hiicf brief e 

In 1869 Regensberg (Ratisbon) was 
added to the list of head district offices 
and was furnished with a label reading 
"Retourbrief ( Kgl. Oberpostamt Re- 
gensberg)" in three lines within a 
single-lined oblong. This label was set 
up from ordinary printer's type. These 
labels, with various inscriptions, grad- 
ually superseded the lithographed ones. 
Most, if not all, were printed in sheets 
of thirty and being set by hand there 
are as many varieties as there are 
stamps on the sheet. Little care was 
exercised in their production and not 
only may lettering of different sizes and 
fonts be found on different stamps but 
such glaring inaccuracies as "Rotour- 
brief" for "Retourbrief", and "Oher- 
postamt" for "Oberpostamt" are by no 
means infrequent. 


In the early sixties one of the favorite 
conundrums of the philatelic journals 
of the period was "Where is JJerge- 
dorf?" What little information was to 
be found in gazeteers and similar works 
of reference was of such a conflicting 
nature that, but for the tangible evi- 
dence of the postage stamps, one might 
be pardoned for doubting its existence ! 
Even nowadays the student will find 
little of note regarding Bergedorf in any 
of the standard works of reference and 
it is evident that its fame is due entirely 
to its postage stamps. And though the 
stamps themselves comprise but one 
modest issue, which was in use for the 
short period of six years, Bergedorf has 
managed to attract plenty of notice. 
Not only have several admirable articles 
appeared in the philatelic press from 
time to time, but the legitimacy of some 
of its varieties have on more than one 
occasion been the cause of heated argu- 
ment. The most recent work on the 
subject is from the pen of Dr. Georges 
Brunei, an excellent translation of 
which will be found in volumes X and 
XI of the Postage Stamp. 

Though early writers on the subject 
could find only conflicting statements re- 
garding the actual whereabouts of this 
small territory a writer in the Stamp 
Collectors' Magazine for March, 1863, 
gives an historical survey of such inter- 
est that we take the liberty of reproduc- 
ing his notes in full. 

"In 1387, the Semiramis of the North, 
wearing already the crowns of Den- 
mark and Norway, received that of 
Sweden. Albert, the deposed and im- 
prisoned king, was recognized only by 
the island of Gottland and the city of 
Holmia, the then capital. John of Meck- 
lenberg, his father-in-law, was besieged 
in that city; and the magistrates of 
Rostock and Wismar issued an edict, al- 
lowing all pirates and predatory 
brigands, who should attack and capture 
any sea or land convoy appertaining to 
the queen's party, free access to their 
ports, and ready means for disposal of 
plunder. The numerous predatory bands 
of that lawless period, glad of any ex- 
cuse for exercising their profession, 
plundered the villages, and under the 
pretext of revictualling (ravitailler} 
Holmia, called themselves Vitalicns, or 

"After this war ceased, the Vitaliens, 
satisfied with their lucrative calling, 
were by no means inclined to resign 
it; and the people of Rostock and Wis- 
mar, who had made peace with the 
queen, finding it impossible to lay the 

fiend they had raised, unified with Ham- 
burg and the other Hanseatic towns, 
in occasional crusades against their for- 
mer allies. This desultory hostility con- 
tinued some years ; and, in 1410, Ham- 
burg, Lubeck, and Bremen obtained an 
undertaking from the Counts of Olden- 
burg, who doubtless had private reasons 
satisfactory to themselves in the shape 
of tribute-money for their patronage 
to withdraw the protection hitherto af- 
forded the Vitaliens. These latter were 
by no means disposed to succumb, and 
allied themselves with other brigands, 
then known under the designation of 
choenapans and filibusters. 

"As the cave of Adullam, ages be- 
fore, afforded refuge to everyone that 
was distressed, or in debt, or discon- 
tented, so, among other strongholds of 
the period under notice, did the castle of 
Bergedorf, which now makes its appear- 
ance on the scene. This was peculiarly 
adapted to the romantic purposes of a 
robber's den ; possessing a subterranean 
passage leading from its vaults, with an 
outlet at a considerable distance in the 
forest. Thence the marauders issuing, 
set upon and plundered travelling mer- 
chants and others; and, if not satisfied 
with the booty obtained from their per- 
sons, blindfolded, and bore them off to 
the dungeons of Bergedorf, till they 
could procure ransom from their friends. 
They were supposed to be privately pro- 
tected by Duke Henry of Saxony under 
whose jurisdiction their retreat then was 
for reasons, most probably pretty 
weighty, best known to himself; as he 
never exerted his influence to quell the 
nuisance, notwithstanding repeated peti- 
tions were addressed him by the authori- 
ties of the surrounding cities. 

"At length the Burgomasters of Ham- 
burg and Lubeck, with two thousand 
foot, and eight hundred horse, and a 
crowd of volunteer citizens, made a reg- 
gular attack on the town of Bergedorf; 
which, yielding after a brief resistance, 
was pillaged and burnt. The brigands, 
however, retreated to the castle, which 
was strong enough to withstand for 
some days the arquebuses and cannons of 
that time. On the fifth day the be- 
siegers collected and fired a quantity of 
combustibles the stifling smoke of which, 
compelling the defenders to retire from 
the walls and windows, enabled them to 
make an escalade, and the garrison sur- 
rendered on condition of being allowed 
to depart with whole skins. In 1430 it 
was agreed that the Duke of Saxony 
should abandon forever, to the towns of 
Lubeck and Hamburg, the castle of Ber- 


gedorf, with its appanages; and for more 
than four hundred years has it remained 
under the joint protection of those 
cities, each claiming the alternate nomi- 
nation of a bailiff, or governor of sena- 
torial rank at first appointed for four, 
afterwards for six years and supply- 
ing an equal number of soldiers to gar- 
rison the castle." 

Hamburg purchased the exclusive own- 
ership of Bergedorf on August 8th, 1867, 
the price paid being 200,000 thalers 
about $150,000 in United States cur- 

The midget territory of Bergedorf 
has an area of about 50 square miles 
and is situated to the south-east of 
Hamburg. Its boundaries are the rivers 
Elbe and Bille and the tributaries of the 
former cut it up into several detached 
portions. The chief town, Bergedorf, has 
about 10,000 inhabitants while the par- 
ish of Geestacht, adjoining, and the vil- 
lages of Neuengramm, Altengramm, 
Kirchwarder, and Kurslach muster be- 
tween them about another 10,000. The 
villages are known as the Vierlande 
(four lands) from the fact that each is 
on an islet. The soil is fertile and mar- 
ket gardening forms the chief industry. 
Hamburg forms the principal market 
for the produce. 

According to some writers the postal 
history of Bergedorf dates from 1837 
when, it is said, a Prussian post-office 
was established. Though the veracity of 
this statement has been questioned 
there seems no doubt that a post-office 
under the joint administration of Lu- 
beck and Hamburg was established in 
1847. The two larger cities joined the 
German-Austrian Postal Union in Jan- 
uary, 1852, but no immediate provision 
was made for the issue of postage 
stamps as stipulated in one of the regu- 
lations of the Union. In fact it was not 
until January 1st, 1859, that Hamburg 
and Lubeck issued stamps and shortly 
after these labels appeared letters posted 
in the Bergedorf district were required 
to be prepaid with Hamburg stamps. Be- 
fore long Bergedorf began to agitate for 
stamps of its own and though the Post- 
master, Herr Paalzow, did his best by 
both writing to and interviewing the 
higher officials his efforts were not im- 
mediately successful. Herr Paalzow's 
most interesting effort took the form of 
a lengthy document, dated July 25th, 
1859, in which he made definite pro- 
posals for certain values, to be executed 
in a certain way, with estimate of costs. 
We make a short extract from this docu- 
ment : 

In accordance with the tariff of lo- 
cal postal rates, five denominations of 

stamps would be necessary for Berge- 
dorf, of the following values: 

(a) */ 2 schilling 

(b) 1 schilling 

(c) \y 2 schilling 

(d) 3 schilling 

(e) 4 schilling 

The cost of manufacture by Ch. 
Fuchs, of Hamburg, including printing, 
paper, and gumming, for lithographed 
stamps, like those introduced at Lu- 
beck, with the arms of the two towns, 
would amount : 
For (a) to 3sch per thousand 
For (b) to 4sch per thousand 
For (c) to 4^sch per thousand 
For (d) to 5sch per thousand 
For (e) to 7^sch per thousand 
In addition the stone which would 
belong to us, once and for all, 20 
thalers cost price. 

Herr Fuchs agrees, in the final 
manufacture of the stamps, to submit 
to any supervision and to be respon- 
sible for all damage which might hap- 
pen through the fault or neglect of his 
firm or his employees. With regard to 
the sale of stamps, it could eventually 
be decided that this could be done dur- 
ing office hours at all the post-offices. 
on payment of their face value, but 
that the selling of postage stamps 
should be absolutely forbidden, in the 
whole territory of the two free towns, 
to all private persons. 

With regard to their use, I would 
suggest that articles sent by mail can 
be prepaid by means of postage stamps 
but that for articles addressed to places 
within the Royal Danish domains, now 
as before, only the Royal Danish 
stamps may be used. 
Herr Paalzow also submitted an en- 
graving of a design he considered' suit- 
able. This showed the joint Arms of 
Lubeck and Hamburg on a central circle 
with "SCHILLINGE" above, "BERGE- 
PA" in the lower angles, and large num- 
erals in the upper corners. Though this 
design was not adopted when it was 
eventually decided to issue stamps there 
is no doubt it formed the inspiration for 
the chosen drawing. The essay was ap- 
parently printed in vertical strips of five 
in black on paper of various colors. 

In the quotation from Herr Paal- 
zow's document mention is made of a 
Danish Post-office. When this was es- 
tablished is uncertain but it was in ac- 
tive operation long before Bergedorf was 
supplied with its own stamps and also 
continued in business for some time 
afterwards. This office dealt with all 
correspondence addressed to Denmark, 
Luxemberg, Oldenburg and Schleswig- 

Holstein, the stamps used being those of 

Two years passed and then in June, 
1861, a convention was held to discuss the 
matter, the outcome being that Berge- 
dorf was allowed to issue its own stomps. 
Whether the designs prepared by Herr 
Ch. Fuchs were shown at this conven- 
tion or not is a doubtful point but at 
any rate his designs were adopted and 
in October the general public were noti- 
fied of the forthcoming issue of stamps 
by means of the following: 


From the 1st November of the pres- 
ent year (1861) all letters posted at 
the post offices of this town, to be sent 
to Geestacht, to the office of despatch 
of the district to Vierland, as well as 
to Bill, to Oschenwerder, Spadenlemd, 
and Moorwerder, can be prepaid, 
either by making payment in cash, or 
by means of postage stamps. The 
postage stamps, for the said period, 
will include the following values: 
J^sch currency on blue paper, printed 

in black. 
Isch currency on white paper, printed 

in black. 
IJ^sch currency on yellow paper, 

printed in black. 
3sch currency on red paper, printed in 

4sch currency on buff paper, printed 

in black. 

Each postage stamp bears in the 
centre the postal arms of Lubeck and 
Hamburg linked together on a wavy 
ground. The arms are surrounded by 
a band above which in the upper cor- 
ners are the letters L H, and in the 
lower ones the letters P A. In addi- 
tion, there is in the upper frame of the 
stamps the word Bergedorf; in the 
lower frame, the word Postmarke ; the 
value in figures is in the four corners, 
and in words at the two sides. The 
back is covered with the necessary gum 
for placing them upon the letters. 

Bergedorf, the 17th October, 1861. 
The Director of Posts, 

( Signed ) PAALZOW, 
Director of Imperial Posts, for- 
merly Postmaster of the Lubeck- 
Hamburg Office at Bergedorf. 
The letters "L H P A" shown in the 
spandrels stand for "Lubeck Hamburg 
Post Ansaalt (Post Office)." The cur- 
rency was the same as that of Hamburg 
and Lubeck, being in schillinge and Ham- 
burg marks, 16sch being equivalent to 
a mark of the value of 25c United States 
currency. The stamps are the most pe- 
culiar ever issued in one respect they 

gradually increase in size according to 
the facial values, the lowest denomina- 
tion measuring 15^x15^ .mm. and the 
highest one 21^x21 mm. 

The stamps were produced by litho- 
graphy by Herr Christian Fuchs of 
Hamburg. One type for each of the 
five values was drawn on the same lith- 
ographic stone and from these the 
transfers necessary to make the print- 
ing stones were taken. On this "die 
stone", if we may so call it, the IJ^sch 
is inscribed "SCHILLINGE" though, 
as we shall show later, this value was 
never issued with the value spelled with 
a final "E." On the same stone an es- 
say for a 4sch stamp is shown. This 
has the usual combined Lubeck-Ham- 
burg Arms in the centre and "L H P 
A" in the spandrels. The name "BER- 
GEDORF," however, is placed just be- 
low the Arms and the border is in- 
scribed "SCHILLING" on all four 
sides. Numerals "4" occupy the cor- 
ners and the whole design is much more 
delicate than the issued one. This es- 
say was prepared about 1866 when the 
authorities proposed to change the de- 
sign of the 4sch as it was believed this 
denomination had been forged in Ham- 
burg. The change of design, however, 
was abandoned owing to the war which 
broke out at this time between Prussia 
and Austria. Proofs from this "die 
stone" are known in at least eight dif- 
ferent colors. 

In the official document relating to 
the issue of the stamps, previously 
quoted, no mention will be found of the 
y 2 schilling in black on pale lilac paper, 
and the 3 schillinge in black on rose 
colored paper. These two varieties are 
of a considerable degree of rarity, as a 
reference to any catalogue quotations 
will prove, and much controversy has 
raged as to their status. Writing with 
regard to them many years ago Mr. 
Duerst stated: "The genuineness of 
these two stamps is open to doubt. 
These colors were not given in the offi- 
cial decree promulgating the issue of 
the stamps, and were only described 
and catalogued after the cessation of 
the Bergedorf post." 

On the other hand M. Moens was a 
strenuous believer in the legitimacy of 
these varieties and as evidence that 
they were issued published a letter he 
had received from the Director of Posts 
himself, viz: 

March 29th, 1878. 
Mv dear Friend, 

There has been published no official 
information on the subject of the is- 
sue, rather by way of trial, of the old 
Y 2 schilling and 3 schillinge stamps, 

with which we were concerned a little 
time ago, because it was immediately 
realised that the colours would have 
to be changed, these colours being 
difficult to recognize by artificial 

The pourparlers and discussions on 
this point were never exchanged di- 
rectly between the Bergedorf authori- 
ties and myself, and were mostly car- 
ried on verbally, which shows that 
there can be no documents on this 

With kind regards, 

(Signed) PAALZOW. 
From this letter one would infer that 
the stamps were in use for some days 
at any rate though no cancelled copies 
are known or have ever been heard of. 
Evidently M. Mocns misconstrued the 
meaning of Herr Paalzow's letter for 
an unbiased study of both sides of the 
question shows the improbability of any 
varieties other than those mentioned in 
the official notice having been used. 

The final quietus as to the right of 
these varieties to be considered issued 
stamps was given by Herr Paalzow's 
son in an interesting article which ap- 
peared in 1898 in the Virginia Phila- 
telist. Herr Paalzow, Jr., states most 
emphatically that the J^sch black on 
lilac and 3sch black on rose were not is- 
sued. He explains their existence as 
follows : a sheet of each value was 
printed and submitted for approval to 
the administration. The colors of the 
1, ~\. l /2, and 4sch were approved and 
those of the l / 2 and 3sch were rejected. 
The printer was then ordered to print 
the ^sch in black on blue paper, and 
the 3sch in blue on rose paper. Herr 
Paalzow asserts that his father's letter, 
written in German, did not convey the 
meaning construed by M. Moens that 
they were issued in a postal sense, but 
rather that they had been made as 
proofs or experiments. 

These "stamps" are therefore only es- 
says though we are perfectly willing to 
concede they are rare essays and real- 
ly have no right in a catalogue of is- 
sued postage stamps. 

On January 1st, 1901, all the docu- 
ments bearing on the dual ownership of 
Bergedorf by Lubeck and Hamburg and 
lying in the archives at Lubeck were 
transferred to Hamburg. While sort- 
ing the various papers a block of twelve 
of each of these essays was found with 
the documents relating to the issue of 
postage stamps. Beyond, however, prov- 
ing that they were officially prepared 
a fact that has never been disputed the 
discovery of these stamps threw no fur- 
ther light on their status. 


The y 2 schilling has the value in- 
scribed as "EIN HALBER" in the left 
border and, as we have already stated, 
measures 15J4 mm. square. This value 
was printed in black on blue paper and 
it is the only one in which any color 
variation is noticeable. The paper chosen 
was of a pale blue tint but during the 
process of printing this paper ran out of 
stock and the additional supply obtained 
was of a much deeper tint. 

This value was printed in sheets of 
200 divided into two panes of 100 each 
and arranged in rather a curious man- 
ner. From the design on the original 
"die stone" the workman took twelve 
transfers which he arranged in a block 
in two vertical rows of six each. This 
block was then transferred to the litho- 
graphic stone sixteen times and the eight 
additional impressions required to com- 
plete the sheet of 200 were added to the 
base as shown in the annexed diagram: 

rH co o r- cirH 

rH CO O .t~ C5 r- I rH CO O t Oi r- It 

rHCOOir-OlrHrHCOOlr OirH 


It would hardly be possible to identify 
each of the twelve varieties composing 
the transfer block though numbers 1, 2, 
3 and 10 may be distinguished by small 


Much has been made of the so-called 
secret marks of the stamps of Bergedorf. 
They are really guide dots made by the 
lithographer to assist him in the correct 
drawing of his designs. But though ac- 
cidental varieties, inasmuch as they were 
not intended to form a part of the origi- 
nal designs, they are of considerable 
importance to philatelists for they are 
a valuable test in distinguishing the 
original stamps from the "reprints." 

The mark for the ^sch consists of a 
small dot in the linked circle under the 
second E of BERGEDORF. Dr. Brunei 
states that there is also a small line, 
shaped like a harpoon, between the wing 
and leg of the eagle, and that on most 
copies the link opposite the A of HAL- 
BER is cut by a small line. 

The total number printed was 200,000 
(a thousand sheets) and of these about 
161,000 were sold during the time they 
were current. The stamps became obso- 
lete on January 1st, 1868, and a few 
months later the remainders were of- 
fered for sale. These were purchased 
by M. Moens for the sum of one thou- 
sand francs ($200) and among the lot 
were approximately 39,000 of the 

ment of the sheet was, therefore, as 
follows : 


The value on the 1 schilling was de- 
noted by the word "EIN" in the left 
border, and as this word was rather 
short the spaces on each side were filled 
with small ornaments. The design 
measures exactly 16 mm. square. This 
value was printed in black on white pa- 
per in sheets of 200. A block of ten 
transfers was taken from the original 
die, and arranged in two vertical rows 
of five. As the corner numerals in the 
original drawing were considered too 
thick and clumsy they were removed 
before making the transfers. The work- 
man then had to draw in the whole of 
the forty numerals by hand so that small 
differences may be found. From this 
block of transfers the lithographic stone 
was made, the block being transferred 
twentv times. The stamps were ar- 
ranged in two panes of one hundred 
each placed one above the other and 
separated by a space of about 2 mm. 
For some reason best known to himself 
the workman inverted all the stamps in 
the lower pane so that each sheet pro- 
vides ten tete beche pairs. The arrange- 

















































































9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10 

OT 6 01 6 01 6 01 6 01 6 

I 8 
fi 9 
8 f 




2 I 2 I 

Ot 6 01 6 

8 I 8 I 

9 Q 9 S 

Q 9 
8 f 

f 8 

2 t 

9 9 
8 t 8 
T 2 T 
01 6 01 6 


t 8 * 8 

9 S 

t 8 

Z I 

01 6 

8 I 

9 e 

* 8 

Z I 

There are three secret marks for this 
value; a dot on the small circle below 
the second E of BERGEDORF, another 
below the I of EIN, and another above 
the first L of SCHILLING. A further 
peculiarity of this value is the fact that 
the first two letters of POSTMARKE 
are always joined. Of the ten impressions 
forming the transfer block numbers 1, 
2, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 can be identified by 
small peculiarities. 

Altogether 90,000 of the Isch were 
printed. Of these 64,000 were sold 
during the period of their currency, 
leaving a balance of 26,000 in the re- 
mainders sold to M. Moens. 


The value on this stamp was denoted 
by the inscription "EIN u. EIN 
HALB." in the left border, the design 
measuring 17^4 mm. square. In the 
original design the l^sch is inscribed 
"SCHILLINGE" and though it seems 
certain that a stone was prepared from 
this and a number of sheets printed 
these stamps were never issued and can 
only be considered as essays. The 
spelling was objected to and the litho- 
grapher had to make a new stone. Dr. 
Brunei says "At one time he thought 
of re-drawing the whole stamp, but he 
soon gave up that idea and contented 
himself with making up a fresh setting, 
the final E being simply erased." This 
can, however, hardly have been the case 
or there would have been a space be- 
tween the G and the end of the tablet. 


As a matter of fact the word is proper- 
ly centered in the border and it is evi- 
dent an impression was taken from the 
original die, the offending word erased, 
and SCHILLING drawn in its place. 
From this secondary "die" the block of 
transfers used in making the printing 
stone was laid down. Writing some 
years ago on the subject Mr. Duerst 
stated "The first issue contained all 
with the error SCHILLINGS, and 
gradually this was altered to SCHIL- 
LING by entirely erasing the word and 
inserting SCHILLING. As a conse- 
quence blocks with both ways of spell- 
ing can be found as well as whole 
sheets without the error SCHIL- 
LINGE." This is manifestly inaccu- 
rate, for had the alteration been 
effected in this manner all sorts of 
varieties in the lettering of SCHIL- 
LING would exist. 

A block of twelve transfers, ar- 
ranged in two vertical rows of six each, 
was used in making the lithographic 
stone. The sheets consisted of 200 
stamps in two panes of 100, placed one 
above the other, and this necessitated 
an even more curious arrangement than 
we have already referred to in the case 
of the y 2 sch. The block of twelve was 
transferred eight times for each pane 
and the additional four stamps were 
added to the ends of the middle rows. 
The arrangement of each pane was, 
therefore, as follows : 

1 2 

3 4 

5 6 

7 8 

9 10 

1 2 

3 4 

5 6 

7 8 

9 10 

9 10 9 10 

2 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12 





9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10 

11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12 

The additional stamps were all in- 
verted in relation to the others so we 
find eight tete-beche pairs in each sheet. 

The secret marks consist of a dot in 
the link under the second E of BERGE- 
DORF, and another in the link over the 
first L of SCHILLING. Of the twelve 
impressions forming the transfer block 
only No. 7 seems to provide a mark by 
means of which it can be identified. 

Of this denomination 100,000 were 
printed and as only 32,000 were sold 
while the issue was in use the re- 
mainders handed over to M. Moens 
consisted of no less than 68,000. 


The 3 schilling, inscribed "DRIE," 
was printed in blue on rose colored 
paper, the design measuring 19J4 by 
19% mm. This value was printed in 
sheets of 160 in sixteen rows of ten. A 
block of ten transfers was made from 
the original design these being arranged 
in two horizontal rows of five each, 



This block was, therefore, transferred 
sixteen times to complete the stone, 
there being two vertical rows of these 
blocks. The upper block of eight trans- 
fers (80 stamps) was divided from the 
lower one by a space of about 4 mm. 
so the sheets are really in two panes 
placed one above the other. 

The secret marks consist of a dot in 
the link above the second L of 
SCHILLINGS, a small dot on the out- 
er frame under the same letter, an 
oblique line projecting from the top 
frame above the second E of BERGE- 
DORF, and a dot on the frame line 
under the M of POSTMARKE. 

Altogether 80,000 of these stamps 
were printed of which about 37,000 were 
sold during the period of their cur- 
rency and the balance of 43,000 was in- 
cluded in the parcel of remainders pur- 
chased by M. Moens. 


The value on the 4sch was expressed 
by the word "VIER," the design 
measuring 21^ by 21 mm. These 
stamps were printed in black on brown 
paper in sheets of eighty arranged in 



ten rows of eight. The transfer block 
used in making the lithographic stone 
consisted of eight impressions in two 
horizontal rows of four each These 
were arranged in the sheet as follows: 
















































































There was a space of 5 mm. between 
the fifth and sixth rows dividing the 
stamps into two panes of forty each 
As this division comes in the center of 
the two middle blocks of transfers it is 
possible that in these two rows the 
group was broken and the two rows 
placed horizontally so that the types 
would be 

2 3 
2 3 

This, however, could only be proved 
by finding a mark of identification on 
one or more of the impressions in the 
group of transfers. 

The secret marks for this value con- 
sist of a projection of the vertical line 
on the left of the P of POSTMARKS 
through the lower frame, and an irreg- 
ularity in the wavy lines of the back- 
ground above and to the left of the 
tower. One of these lines does not 
continue downwards like the others, but 
turns back close to the tower thus 
showing a break. 

Altogether 80,000 of the 4sch stamps 
were printed, 30,000 being sold while the 
issue was current and the balance of 
50,000 going to M. Moens with the rest 
of the remainders. 

Although there were considerably 
more of the l^sch in the remainders 
than 3sch or 4sch yet the two latter 
values are priced a little less in the 

Owing to the number of remainders 
genuine originals are still obtainable 
in unused condition at quite low prices. 
Used, however, the stamps are all very 

Reference List. 

1861. Lithographed. Imperf. 

1 ^sch black on blue, Scott's No. 3 or 3a. 

2. Isch black on white, Scott's No. 4. 

3. l l / 2 black on ydlow, Scott's No. 5. 

4. 3sch blue on rose, Scott s No. b. 

5. 4sch black on brown, Scott s No. 7. 


In detailing the various values we 
have given the total quantities printed 
and an important point to bear in mind 
is that all these were printed at the 
same time, that is, there was only one 
printing of each value. This was due 
to the fact that only one lithographic 
stone was purchased and as soon as 
the supply of one value was printed 
the stone was cleaned and the impres- 
sions for another denomination were 
transferred. It will thus be under- 
stood that reprints do not exist, the so- 
called "reprints" being nothing better 
than imitations printed from new stones 
though the original "dies" were cer- 
tainly used. Of the many imitations 
made only two were made by the Ber- 
gedorf authorities themselves. In May 
1867 M. Moens sent an order for twelve 
sheets of each of the ^sch and 3sch 
values in the colors of the rare essays. 
As the group of transfers used in laying 
down the original stone was non-exist- 
ent fresh ones had to be made The 
i^sch was transferred in blocks oi 
eight and the 3sch in blocks of sixteen. 
The sheets were of the same size as the 
originals so that the total supply of 
these imitations was 2,400 of the ^scn 
and 1,920 of the 3sch. The impression 
of the ^sch is less sharp than that of 
the originals and the cross stroke of the 
H of SCHILLING is either very in- 
distinct or missing altogether. The 
imitations of the 3sch may be at once 
distinguished by the presence of two 
small dots on the center of the b ol 
POSTMARKS, dots which do not 
show in the genuine labels. 


When M. Moens purchased the re- 
mainders the "die stone" also became 
his property and he caused new stones 
to be made from these from which he 
made printings on four different occa- 
sions. Although these are usually des- 
ignated as reprints they are nothing 
better than unofficial imitations for, as 
we have already shown, the original 
stones were not available. It appears 
that Moens had disposed of the entire 
stock of remainders by 1872 and as the 
demand was still good he decided to 
make imitations. Further supplies were 
made in 1874, 1887, and 1888. We 
think it hardly necessary to follow L>r. 
Brunei's extensive survey of the man- 
ner in which the stones were made up 
for the various printings; specialists 
who are interested should refer to the 


article in the "Postage Stamp" men- 
tioned in our introductory notes. It 
will suffice for our purpose to point 
out the little peculiarities by which these 
imitations can be told from the genuine 
stamps. To start with the 1^2 schilling 
was never imitated for, as the original 
design on the "die stone" bore the spell- 
ing "SCHILLINGE" all the imita- 
tions show the same "error." Speak- 
ing generally the impressions of all 
values are less sharp than those of the 
originals and the shades of the papers 
are not the same. 

The first imitations of the ^sch, 
made in 1872, measure 15 by 15^ mm. 
The H of SCHILLING is always minus 
the cross bar and one (sometimes 
both) of the A's in the inscription are 
also without the cross stroke. In the 
second supply, made in 1887, the labels 
measure 15J/2 mm. square. None of 
the letters A have bars and the bar on 
the H is either missing or very indis- 

In the first edition of the Isch (1872) 
the numerals in the corners are quite 
different from those on the originals 
and generally have erifs at foot. They 
measure 16 mm. square like the origi- 
nals. In the second imitation (1887) 
the numerals are all much too thick 
being 1 mm. wide instead of the ^ mm. 
of the originals. The size of the label 
is 16J/2 by 1634 mm. and none of the 
letters A are provided with a cross 
bar. In the third supply (1888) the cor- 
ner numerals are thin but this imita- 
tion can " be at once identified by the 
background which has almost entirely 
worn away. 

The first imitation of the 3sch (1872) 
measures 19% by 19^ mm. and can be 
at once distinguished by the absence of 
shading on the head of the eagle. The 

second issue (1887) can be identified by 
the same characteristic and the size of 
the labels is also different the measure- 
ments being 19% by 20 mm. The up- 
per part of the shield is solid and the 
lines of the background are hardly 
visible. The third issue (1888) may 
also be distinguished from the originals 
by the worn background and the ab- 
sence of shading on the eagle's head. 

The first imitation of the 4sch, made 
in 1872, can be told by the presence of 
a short line slanting upwards in the 
circle opposite the I of VIER. The 
wavy lines of the background, too, are 
regular by the top of the tower and the 
labels measure 21 by 20% mm. A sec- 
ond supply was printed in 1874 these 
being distinguished by a vertical line 
on the head of the eagle and numerous 
breaks in the wavy lines of the back- 
ground. In the third supply, made in 
1887, the oblique line by the I of VIER 
again appears. The letters of BERGE- 
DORF are very irregular and the back- 
ground is very rough. These imitations 
measure 21% by 21 y 2 mm. 

Moens also possessed the original 
obliterating stamp so that he was able 
to oblige with "used" imitations if de- 
sired. In 1895 this obliterator together 
with the "die stone" was sold to the 
Berlin Post Office Museum so that 
fear of any further imitations is ob- 

A number of counterfeits have also 
been made from time to time some of 
these dating from so long ago as 1864. 
A comparison of any doubtful speci- 
mens with the "secret marks" of the 
originals and the foregoing description 
of the imitations should enable any 
collector to decide for himself what 
they are. 


The town of Bremen owes its origin 
to a bishopric founded in 788 by Charle- 
magne. Tiring of the episcopal yoke it 
joined the Hanseatic league in the thir- 
teenth century, this league being a con- 
federation of German towns founded 
for mutual protection and for the pro- 
motion of commercial advantages. 
Bremen seems to have been a somewhat 
troublesome member of the league for 
it was several times expelled and read- 
mitted. By the sixteenth century it 
was in a highly prosperous condition 
and despite numerous vicissitudes since 
it has retained its prosperity. Bremen 
is situated at the mouth of the Weser 
and embraces within its boundaries two 
other towns Bremerhaven and Vege- 
sack. Its modern commercial prosperi- 
ty dates from the founding of Bremer- 
haven in 1830, this port being only sec- 
ond to Hamburg. It is one of the ship- 
owning ports of Germany and has a 
mercantile fleet of over 600 vessels 
(with a tonnage in excess of 700,000) 
including the fleet of the North Ger- 
man Lloyd, whose headquarters are 
here. Its most striking edifice is the 
cathedral, dating from the llth century, 
and the town hall is also an imposing 
structure. It has many important in- 
dustries and at the present time its 
population numbers about 170,000. 

The town of Bremen is the capital of 
the free state of that name, a state hav- 
ing an area of 99 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 230,000. It sends one 
representative to the Imperial Diet and 
has one vote in the Imperial Council. 
The state forms a democratic republic 
governed by a senate of sixteen elected 
members (the excutive) presided over 
by two burgomasters elected for four 
years, and an assembly of 150 citizens 
(the legislative). In 1810 it was an- 
nexed by France, but three years later 
recovered its independence and joined 
the Germanic Confederation, subsequent- 
ly the North German Confederation, and 
finally was merged in the German 


The philatelic history of Bremen is 
short and uneventful. Its few stamps 
have, seemingly, never been so exten- 
sively written of as, for instance, those 
of Bergedorf though they are full of in- 
terest and much still remains to be dis- 
covered regarding the make-up of the 
sheets, the dates of issue of the many 

pronounced shades, etc. Though the 
second in importance of the three Han- 
seatic towns of Hamburg, Bremen, and 
Lubeck, Bremen was the first to employ 
postage stamps. Its first stamp was 
issued on April 10th, 1855 and was pure- 
ly for local use. In 1856 a 5gr stamp 
was issued for use on letters to Ham- 
burg; in 1860 a 7gr stamp appeared this 
being intended for prepayment of the 
rate to Lubeck and Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin; and in the following year a 
5sgr value was issued for prepayment of 
the ship-rate on letters to England. 
Shortly afterwards a lOgr label made 
its appearance, this being to prepay the 
single letter rate to Holland. This 
value was rouletted and in the follow- 
ing year new supplies of the denomina- 
tions already referred to were also 
issued in this condition instead of im- 
perf. as previously. In 1863 a reduction 
in the local rate made a 2gr stamp 
necessary and while no new values ap- 
peared all were issued in 1867 perfo- 
rated. On January 1st, 1868, Bremen 
joined the North German Confedera- 
tion and its special stamps were retired 
in favor of the set for general use with- 
in the Confederation. It will be noted 
from foregoing notes that all the stamps 
of Bremen were issued for local use or 
for some special purpose. What we 
may term outside correspondence was 
forwarded through post-offices estab- 
lished in the town by Hanover, Prussia, 
and Thurn and Taxis, the stamps of 
those offices being used. 

The different currencies in use in 
Germany at that date must have caused 
considerable confusion, and that of Bre- 
men appears to have been distinct from 
all the others. Though the reichsthaler, 
or < thaler, was the standard coin over 
part of Northern Germany, it was split 
up into 72 grote in Bremen, and into 24 
gutegroschen of 12 pfennige each in 
Brunswick and Hanover. Eleven grote 
was considered equivalent to 5 silber- 
groschen of Prussia so that the stamp of 
lowest denomination, the 2 grote, was 
worth a little less than 1 silbergroschen. 
The reichsthaler was worth about 78c at 
that period so that 1 grote was equiva- 
lent to a fraction over Ic. 


The first stamp was issued on April 
10th, 1855, its facial value being 3 grote 
and it was intended for franking letters 
within the town, including Bremerhaven 
and Vegesack. The stamps were litho- 


graphed in Bremen, the design showing 
the Arms (a key) on a shield sur- 
mounted by a crown, with "STADT 
POST AMT." (town post administra- 
tion) above, and "BREMEN" below. On 
each side of the shield is a large numeral 
"3", in shaded figures within an oval, 
richly ornamented with scroll work, and 
in each of the angles is a small un- 
colored "3" on a solid colored ground. 
The key is emblematic of the indepen- 
dence of the once free city for as Mr. 
Overy Taylor wrote in the Stamp Col- 
lector's Magazine (vol. IX p. 164) : "The 
Bremen burgesses kept the key of their 
own door, instead of giving it into the 
custody of some neighbouring potentate, 
and knew how to maintain their inde- 
pendence long after other equally im- 
portant towns had succumbed." 

The stamps were printed in black on 
dull greyish-blue paper of moderate 
thickness, gummed with a white gum 
thinly applied. The paper is laid and 
the laid lines may be found running 
both horizontally or vertically, the lat- 
ter being a little the rarer unused and 
much rarer used. 

This 3 grote stamp was, as we have 
already stated, produced by lithography. 
Three drawings were made of the de- 
sign each differing in small particulars 
from the others. These three types ap- 
pear side by side repeated throughout 
the sheet, which consisted of twelve hori- 
zontal rows of six stamps each as fol- 
lows : 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

1 2 


2 3 

The face value of an entire sheet was, 
therefore, exactly three reichsthalers. 
There are a number of small differences 
distinguishing the three types but the 
following should suffice to identify them : 

Type I. The central loop of the orna- 
ment below "BREMEN" has a single 
line drawn vertically through it. 

Type II. Two vertical lines are 
drawn through the loop. 

Type III. Three vertical lines now 
appear and the loop is open instead of 
closed as in the other two types. 

All three types are found with and 
without a broken line under the inscrip- 
tion "STADT POST AMT." These 
stamps, in common with all others issued 
subsequently in Bremen, were manufac- 
tured by the Hunkel Lithographic Com- 
pany, of Bremen. 

Reference List. 

1855. Lithographed. Laid paper. Imperf. 
1. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 1. 


The next stamp to appear was the 5 
grote, which was created to prepay the 
single letter rate to Hamburg. This 
value was issued on April 4th, 1856, and 
was also lithographed. The single let- 
ter weight at that time was one loth 
or ounce so that the charge (over 5c) 
seems high for sending a letter to such 
a nearby city; and all the more so when 
it is considered that the Thurn and 
Taxis office only charged 3 grote for 
carrying a letter from Bremen to 
Munich over six times the distance. 

The design shows the Arms on a 
shield in the centre surmounted by a 
crown, with "France Marke" (frank 
stamp) on a scroll above and the value 
"fiinf Grote" on a scroll below. On each 
side of the shield is a numeral "5" in an 
oval frame, with scroll ornaments. The 
whole is on a rectangular ground of zig- 
zag lines running horizontally, the rec- 
tangle having indented angles in which 
are small ornaments. There were two 
drawings of the design, differing in 
small particulars, and the transfers were 
applied to the lithographic stone in pairs. 
The size of the sheet is, however, a mat- 
ter regarding which we can find no in- 
formation. The two types may be most 

readily distinguished by the disposition 
of the zig-zag lines of the background. 
In type I the lines immediately to the 
left of the word "fiinf" are V shaped, 
and there are eleven zig-zags at the bot- 
tom of the design with about half of 

another at each end. In type II the 
lines to the left of "fiinf" slope down- 
wards and there are exactly 11^4 zig- 
zags at the foot of the design. There 
are thin vertical and horizontal dividing 
lines between all the stamps on a sheet 
an4 in each corner, outside the design, 
in a line with the middle of the three 
projections, is a small dot. 

Both types exist with the second word 
of the upper inscription reading "Mar- 
ken" but these varieties, prepared in er- 
ror, were never issued. They are quite 
common for a large quantity was in- 
cluded with the remainders sold in 1868. 
Reference List. 

1856. Lithographed. Imperf. 

2. ogr black on rose, Scott's No. 2. 


It was not until July 10th, 1860, that 
another value was issued. This was the 
7 grote issued for defraying the rate 
of postage to Lubeck and Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. Correspondence in this di- 
rection could not have been very large 
for the 7gr used is a very scarce variety. 
The design is very similar to that of the 
5gr with the value at base expressed as 
"Sieben Grote." There is but one type 
of this value and, like the 5gr, there are 
dividing lines between the stamps on 
the sheet. A small mark, evidently 
quite accidental in origin though it was 
at one time dignified by the term "secret- 
dot," appears on all the genuine stamps. 
This is a small colored dot which ap- 
pears just below the center of the up- 
right stroke of the "k" of "Marke." 
Reference List. 

I860. Lithographed. Imperf. 

3. 7gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 3. 


On December 13th, 1861, a stamp of 
5sgr was issued to prepay the ship rate 
to Great Britain. In design, color, and 
workmanship this is certainly the best 
of all the Bremen issues. In the center 
is the usual key (but without the crown) 

on an oval of solid color with a richly 
ornamented border. The rectangular 
frame, which is also very ornate, con- 
tains the name "BREMEN" at the top, 
and the value "5 Sgr" at the base be- 
tween small circles containing the 

Roman number "V". There is only one 
type of this stamp. Why the value was 
expressed as 5 silbergroschen instead of 
11 grote it is difficult to say. The sil- 
bergroschen was not a Bremen coin 
but the term may have been used because 
this was the Prussian and Hanoverian 
rate to England. This value is found in 
several distinct shades of green and, un- 
used, is commonest on thick paper. 
Reference List. 

1861. Lithographed. Imperf. 

4. 5sgr green, Scott's Nos. 4 or 4a. 


On the same day that the 5sgr stamp 
was issued a 10 grote stamp was placed 
in circulation for prepayment of the 
single letter rate to the Netherlands. 
This stamp was lithographed in black on 
white wove paper, the design showing 
the "key" on a vertically lined oval with- 
in a double framing, the inner one resem- 
bling engine turned work, and the outer 
one, containing the inscriptions, being 
composed of lines crossing each other 

diagonally, the frame making an irregu- 
larly shaped oval. The inscriptions con- 
sist of "BREMEN" in the upper part 
and "ZEHN GROTE" in the lower. 
In each of the four angles are the 
numerals "10" on small flat ovals of 
solid color. It is interesting to note 
that in all genuine specimens there is an 
error of engraving in the upper left 
corner, the lines of the ground of the 
outer frame extending over the exterior 
white lines of the frame. It is curious 
that this stamp is not known imperfor- 


ate, though issued on the same day as 
the 5sgr, but was rouletted in the style 
known as perces en scie, which made 
incisions something like the teeth of a 
saw in shape, gauging 16. There was 
only one type for this value and the 
stamps had dividing lines between them 
on the sheet. 

Reference List. 

1861. Lithographed. Perces en scie 16. 
5. lOgr black, Scott's No. 7. 


In 1862 the 3gr, 5gr and 5sgr were issued 
with the perces en scie roulettes but the 
7gr, for which there was only a small 
demand, is not known in that condition. 
The 3gr, like the imperf. variety is 
found on laid paper while the other two 
values are on wove paper. The same 
types of the 3gr and 5gr exist for 
the original stones were used. 
Reference List. 

1862. Lithographed. Wove or laid (3gr) 
paper. Perces en scie 16. 

6. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 9. 

7. ogr black on rose, Scott's No. 6. 

S. 5sgr green, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a. 


On April 29th, 1863, a new value, 2 
grote, was issued this being for the 
single letter rate between Bremen and 
Vegesack. The design shows the 

usual '"key" in the centre within a 
pearled oval which in turn is sur- 
rounded by a broad engine-turned 
oval band. This band is inscribed 
"BREMEN" at top and "ZWEI 
GROTE" at foot. The large oval is 
enclosed by a rectangular frame 
inscribed "STADT" at left, "POST" at 
top, and "AMT" at right. In each of 
the corners the numeral "2" is shown 
on a small shield and the spandrels are 
filled with ornamentation. This value 
was lithographed in orange varying a 
good deal in shade and, like the 10 
grote, was never issued in imperforate 

Reference List. 
1863. Lithographed. Wove paper. Perces en 

scie 16. 
t>. 2gr orange, Scott's No. 5 or No. 5a. 


The two grote was the last stamp to 
be issued and no further changes were 
made until 1867 when all six values 
were placed in circulation perforated 13, 
the perforation evidently being the work 
of a single lined machine. The 3gr is 
on laid paper as before, all the others 
being on wove. The dividing lines were 
removed from the stone of the 7gr and 
though the lines remained on the other 
values they did not always print dis- 
tinctly. Most of the values of this set 
are considerably rarer used than unused 
for not only did they have a very short 
life, but, as we shall show later, a 
number of remainders came on the mar- 
ket in 1868. 

Reference List. 

1867. Lithographed. Wove or laid (3gr) 
paper. Perf. 13. 

10. 2gr orange, Scott's No. 11 or lla. 

11. 3gr black on blue, Scott's No. 10. 

12. 5gr black on rose, Scott's No. 12. 

13. 7gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 13. 

14. lOgr black, Scott's No. 14. 

15. 5sgr green, Scott's No. 15 or No. 15a. 

At the end of 1867 the post-office of 
Bremen ceased to exist as a separate 
administration, and from January 1st 
1868 formed part of the North German 
Confederation. The remaining stamps 
in stock, comprising a large quantity of 
the perforated stamps, some of the 5gr 
and 5sgr imperforate, and a few lOgr 
rouletted were subsequently sold. The 
only item I can trace bearing on the 
disposal of the remainders is a para- 

fraph in the Monthly Journal for 
une, 1903, viz: 

About the same date (December, 
1868) Mr. Van Rinsum, of Amster- 
dam, passing through Bremen, pur- 
chased the whole stock of stamps 
there, for cash down, at the high price 
of 5 thalers ! At least that is what 
I have been told. We may suppose 
that this was not such a bad bargain 
for Mr. Van Rinsum. 
Before concluding this short sketch of 
the postal issues of Bremen mention 
should be made of two labels which 
sometimes turn up in old collections and 
are apt to prove puzzling to the tyro. 
One of these is a 1 grote stamp bearing 
a large figure "1" in the middle sur- 
rounded by rays and bearing a small 
circle in its center on which is the usual 
Bremen "key." Surmounting this is the 
word "Umsatzsteuer." This is simply a 

fiscal stamp and, of course, has no place 
in a collection of postage stamps. 

The other variety is circular in shape 
and has scalloped edges. The design 
consists of three concentric circles with 
the Arms in the centre surrounded by 
the inscription "STADT POST AMT 
BREMEN." It is printed in black on 
blue or pink paper. Though at one 

time considered an official postage stamp 
its postal use has never been proved and 
a writer in the "Stamp Collector's Maga- 
zine" (vol. IV, p. 173) stated that "the 
only official documents I find them on 
are Bremen 'letter bills/ and even then 
they are not upon the covers, but upon 
the 'bills' themselves. What their use 
is I cannot say." 


Brunswick, or Braunschweig to give 
it its Teutonic name, is a sovereign 
duchy of the German Empire situated 
between Hanover, Saxony, and West- 
phalia. It has an area of 1424 square 
miles and a population a little in excess 
of half a million. The duchy has two 
votes in the Imperial Council and sends 
three representatives to the Imperial 
Diet. Originally Brunswick formed a 
part of the duchy of Saxony, but in 
1235 the independent duchy of Bruns- 
wick was created. Subsequently, along 
with Hanover, Luneburg, Celle and 
other territories, it was transferred and 
reconveyed several times as the various 
Brunswick dynasties were founded and 
died out. The duchy suffered severely 
during the Seven Years War. It was 
occupied by the French in 1806, an- 
nexed to the kingdom of Westphalia in 
the following year, and restored to its 
duke in 1813. The direct Guelf line 
became extinct in 1884, on the death 
of the childless Duke William, and since 
1885 the duchy has been governed by 
a regent. 

The town of Brunswick, capital of 
the duchy, is of ancient origin, its cath- 
edral, for instance, dating from 1172. 
Here is found the tomb of Henry the 
Lion, Duke of Saxony, whose de- 
scendants created the independent duchy. 

The currency was the same as that 
of Hanover being the reichsthaler, 
worth about 78c, divided into 24 gute- 
groschen of 12 pfennige, or the thaler, 
worth about 72c, divided into 30 silber- 
groschen of 10 pfennige. 


While its neighbours. Hanover and 
Prussia, issued stamps in 1850, Bruns- 
wick did not follow suit until January 
1st, 1852, when a series of three values 
was issued. All three values are of 
similar design, the centerpiece showing 
the horse of Brunswick galloping to the 
left, with a ducal coronet above, the 
whole being on a transverse oval with 

ground of vertical lines. On each side 
are small upright uncolored ovals con- 
taining the numerals of value, and above 
and below are scrolls the upper one 
containing the name, "BRAUN- 
SCHWEIG," and the lower one the 
value, "EIN (ZWEI or DRIE) SILB. 
GR." The whole is enclosed within 
a double-lined rectangular frame, one 
line being thick and the other thin. 

The stamps were designed and en- 
graved by Herr K. Petersen, and 
printed bv Herr J. H. Meyer, in Bruns- 
wick. That separate dies were en- 
graved for each of the three values is 
proved by slight differences in the de- 
signs, especially noticeable in the num- 
ber and arrangement of the stones be- 
low the horse. They were printed on 
a fairly thick white wove paper and 
the gum used was either reddish-brown 
or white with a brownish tinge similar 
to that used for the stamps of Hanover. 
They were issued imperforate. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Ehrenbach (London Phi- 
latelist vol. Ill, p. 162) the stamps were 
printed in sheets of 120 arranged in 
twelve horizontal rows of ten each, the 
stamps being about 2 mm. apart. Mr. 
Westoby states that the plates were com- 
posed of type-metal casts, which may 
account for the existence of the three 
"types" of the Isgr differentiated by 
Mr. Ehrenbach as follows : 

Type I. With no dots on the figures 
of value. 

Type II. With a dot on the figure 
at right. 

Type III. With a dot on the figure at 

Mr. Ehrenbach further states that 
there is an error of lettering in type I 


with the word "SILBG" reading "SIL. 
3." The stamps were only in use about 
fourteen months and unused specimens, 
with original gum, are among the rarest 
of German stamps. Indeed, many au- 
thorities consider the Isgr unused as 
the rarest European stamp. 

When the stamps were first placed 
on sale considerable interest was evinced 
in their issue by the public. It is said 
that a huge crowd awaited the opening 
of the chief post-office in the town of 
Brunswick. At first only strips of ten 
stamps were sold to purchasers but this 
order was rescinded in 1853. Unfor- 
tunately no official documents are 
known to exist having any bearing on 
the history of these stamps as one of 
the Postmasters-General, who had a 
terrible aversion to the accumulation 
of papers and records, had ordered 
everything to be burned. 

Reference List. 
1852. Typographed. Imperf. 

1. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 1. 

2. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 2. 

3. 3sgr vermilion. Scott's No. 3. 

shade as there were several printings 
during the period the stamps were cur- 

Reference List. 

1853. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf. 

4. ISPT black on orange, Scott's Nos. 4 or 5. 

5. 2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 6. 

6. 3sgr black on rose, Scott's No. 7. 


Two low values were added to the 
series on March 1st, 1856, 3 pfennig^ 
54ggr, and4pfennig=%ggr. The former 
had "54" in the ovals at the sides and 
"DRIE PFENNIG" in the scroll below ; 
while the latter had "%" in the ovals 
and was inscribed "VIER SILBR. GR." 
These stamps were also printed on the 
watermarked paper the %sgr being on 
brown, and the %sgr on white. 

Reference List. 
1856. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf. 

7. l Aggr (3pf) black on brown, Scott's No. 8. 

8. Xggr (4pf) black, Scott's No. 9. 


On March 1st, 1853, the stamps ap- 
peared printed in black on colored paper, 
the Isgr being on yellow, the 2sgr on 
blue, and the 3sgr on rose. The stamps 
of the first issue were not called in or 
demonetised and this fact probably ac- 
counts for the scarcity of unused speci- 
mens. The paper employed for the sec- 
ond issue was hand-made, of coarse 
texture, and was watermarked. The 
watermark consisted of a posthorn, 
turned to the left, within a rectangular 

frame though occasionally, owing to the 
paper being inserted wrong way into 
the printing press, the device may be 
found turned to the right. Every post- 
horn of the 120 contained in a sheet 
differs in size and shape from the others 
the "bits" for the dandy-roll having 
been made by hand. Mr. Meyer was 
again entrusted with the printing of the 
stamps, under the control of the ad- 
ministration, and Mr. Westoby tells us 
he used an ordinary printing press for 
the purpose. The paper varies in 


The 54ggr was only in use for eleven 
months (the total quantity printed being 
271,040) when it was replaced by a new 
stamp of unusual design. This was a 
large stamp, 24 mm. square, capable of 
being divided into four, each of the 
divisions representing 3 pfennig, and 
the entire stamp being equivalent to 1 
gutegroschen. The central portion of 
the stamp was divided into four squares 
each containing a transverse oval in- 
scribed "54" surmounted by a crown 
with "Gutegr." below. Above the up- 
per quarters and below the lower ones 
is "Postmarke," and at the side of 
each square is "3 Pfennige" in italic 
type. The whole is enclosed by a thick 
single-lined frame. This, it is inter- 
esting to note, is the only Brunswick 
stamp failing to show the galloping 
horse. The stamps were printed in 
black on brown watermarked paper but 
as the paper was intended for stamps 
of smaller size the posthorns appear 
very irregularly. The stamps were 
printed in sheets of 100 in ten rows 
of ten. 

A large quantity of this value was 
printed in brown on white paper in 1866 
but for some reason or other they were 
never issued. The variety is quite com- 
mon, however, for the entire lot was 
sold with the remainders in 1868, when 
the post-office of Brunswick was ab- 
sorbed by that of the North German 


Reference List. 

1857. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf. 
0. 4/4ggr black on brown, Scott's No. 10. 


The 3sgr resumed its original color 
of rose on white paper in September, 
1862, though, as the watermarked paper 
was used, it cannot be confused with 
the rare stamp of 1852. 

On January 1st, 1863, another value 
was added to the series by the issue of 
a stamp of ^sgr, printed in black _on 
green watermarked paper. The design 
is similar to that of the other values 
but the value in numerals on the small 
ovals at the sides is in uncolored figures 
on a ground of solid color. The value 
in words on the lower scroll is expressed 

Reference List. 
1862-63. Typographed. Wmk. Posthorn. Imperf. 

10. J^sgr black on green, Scott's No. 11. 
sgr rose, Scott's No. 12. 



Up to 1864 none of the stamps had 
been issued other than imperforate ; but 
in July of that year the Isgr was changed 
in color, being printed in yellow on 
white paper, and the opportunity was 
taken of experimenting with a roulette. 
The rouletting was done in line and 
had a gauge of 12. Whether the cuts 
were made by a rouletting wheel or on 
the printing press with ordinary notched 
rule does not appear to be known. The 
roulette is always very indistinct owing 
to the thickness of the paper. It was 
not particularly satisfactory and in the 
following month other stamps appeared 
with the rouletted cuts arranged in a 
series of short curves giving a scallop 
effect to the edges of severed stamps. 
This is the style known as perces en arc 
and it had a gauge of 16^2 to 17^2. This 
rouletting, Mr. Westoby tells us, was 
done by the printer, Meyer, in the press 
by means of thin brass printer's rule. 
The %ggr black on white, J^sgr black 
on green, Isgr black on yellow, Isgr 
yellow on white, 2sgr black on blue, and 

3sgr rose on white were all issued with 
this roulette, some of them being ex- 
tremely rare. The ^2 sgr black on green, 
Isgr black on yellow, and 3sgr rose on 
white are also known rouletted in line 
but there seems considerable doubt as 
to whether these varieties were issued 
officially. The ^sgr is also known perf. 
12 but this is known to be an unofficial 
production. To a note regarding this 
Mr. Westoby adds "nor is there any 
doubt that some rouletted specimens 
have been manufactured by the purvey- 
ors of varieties." 

In the list below we only include those 
varieties regarding which there are no 
doubts as to their official origin. 

Reference List. 

1864. Wmk. Posthorn. Rouletted 12. 
12. Isgr yellow, Scott's No. 19. 
Perces en arc 16*4 to 1754. 
i^ggr black, Scott's No. 13. 
J^sgr black on green, Scott's No. 14. _ 
Isgr black on yellow, Scott's No. 15. 
Isgr yellow, Scott's No. 17. 
2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 16. 
3sgr rose, Scott's No. 18. 




In October, 1865, stamps of a new de- 
sign were introduced. The colors were 
also changed so as to make them more 
in conformity with those adopted by 
the Thurn and Taxis post-office and the 
German States. The dies, which were 
engraved on steel at Berlin, were com- 
mon to adhesives and a series of enve- 
lopes. The design consists of the usual 
galloping horse surmounted by a ducal 
crown, this being in white on an oval 
of solid color. Around this is an oval 
band on which the name "BRAUN- 
SCHWEIG" appears at the top and 
"GROSCHEN" at the base on an en- 
gine-turned ground. In the center of 
the band at each side of the horse is a 
disc for the numerals of value. Four 
values were issued, %gr, Igr, 2gr and 
Sgr all being embossed in color on 
plain white wove machine made paper. 
They were rouletted perces en arc like 
the set they superseded. The stamps 
were printed in sheets of 100 arranged 
in ten rows of ten. 

Mr. Westoby gives an excellent ac- 
count of the method employed in the 
manufacture of these stamps and other 
embossed stamps of a similar nature is- 
sued about the same time for Lubeck, 
Prussia, and Oldenburg viz : 

The matrix dies were, with scarcely 
any exception, engraved by Schilling, 
the engraver to the Irrlperial Printing 
Works. The central design alone was 
first engraved on a block of steel in 

intaglio, from which a mechanical 
workman made a punch in steel; and 
if four values were required, he, with 
the aid of the punch, sank the central 
design on four steel dies, on which 
the engraver subsequently added the 
border and the proper inscriptions. 
Were envelopes alone wanted, the pro- 
cess was complete; but when adhesive 
stamps were required a further process 
was necessary, as plates had to be 
constructed. The embossed adhesive 
stamps were generally printed in 
sheets of 100 or 150, arranged in 
rows of ten. Fifty rectangular im- 
pressions in lead of the size of the 
stamp were struck from each die in a 
fly-press, and these were clamped to- 
gether in a chase in five rows of ten. 
From each of these, two or three 
electrotypes were made, which formed 
the printing plate of 100 or 150 stamps. 
The vertical and horizontal rows were 
numbered consecutively in each mar- 
gin in movable type figures, and the 
plate was ready for printing. The 
process appears complicated, but it 
was not a very expensive one where 
the stamps were not required in large 

Proofs of the new stamps were dis- 
tributed in January, 1865, and it was 
stated they would be ready for issue 
on April 1st, but, as we have already 
stated, they did not actually appear until 

There are several shades of all ex- 
cept the lowest value, and all are known 
imperforate. These were never issued 
but are from sheets which were found 
among the remainders. 

Reference List. 


No wmk. Perces en arc 



16^ to 17%. 

H&r black, Scott's No. 20. 
Igr rose, Scott's No. 21. 
2gr blue, Scott's No. 22. 
3gr bistre, Scott's No. 23. 

At the end of 1867 the postal adminis- 
tration of Brunswick was merged in 
that of the North German Confederation 
and ceased to exist as an independent 
establishment after December 31st, 1867. 

The remainders of the 1865 issue were 
sold in 1868. They were not offered in 
one lot but could be purchased by the 
100 sheets at about 2 thalers by anyone 
interested. As a matter of fact most of 
them were purchased by one man, a Ger- 
man dealer, and that there must have 
been a large stock of some values is ob- 
vious from the low prices at which they 
are priced in present day catalogues. 


Hamburg, a seaport town in Ger- 
many, is the capital of the independent 
state of the same name and the most 
important seaport on the continent of 
Europe. It is situated on the right 
bank of the river Elbe, 75 miles above 
its outflow into the North Sea, and it 
is 178 miles by rail from Berlin. 

On the site now occupied by this im- 
portant city there were but a few 
scattered fishermen's cottages before the 
time of Charlemagne. Then a few 
merchants settled in the vicinity and by 
808 the place had attained sufficient im- 
portance for Charlemagne to erect a 
fortified castle to protect his subjects 
from the depredations of the Normans 
and Danes. This castle, or "burg," 
took its name from the neighbouring 
forest of Hamme, and the original 
spelling of Hammeburg was, later, cor- 
rupted to Hamburg. About the middle 
of the ninth century the town, under 
Archbishop Ansgar, became the dis- 
seminator of Christianity throughout 

northern Europe. After frequent pil- 
lages and burnings from Northmen, 
Danes, and Slavs the town began to be 
frequented as a trade centre and by 
the end of the twelfth century it was 
not only prosperous but, though under 
the domination of the Duke of Hoi- 
stein, practically independent. Towards 
the middle of the thirteenth century 
Hamburg was united to Bremen (to 
which the archiepiscopal see was trans- 
ferred in 1223) and Lubeck in the 
formation of the Hanseatic league. 
This league or Hansa (from the old 
Teutonic word Aan.fitt=partnership) 
was an association of trading towns 
which had considerable political power 
until the sixteenth century. Most of 
the important seaports from London to 
Novgorod, in Russia, belonged to the 
league and their ships carried one com- 
mon flag that of the Hansa. In 1619 
the Bank of Hamburg was founded and 
this imparted an enormous impulse to 
its commercial importance, and about 

the same time a number of English 
merchant adventurers and numerous 
Jews expelled from Spain and Portu- 
gal settled in the town. In the early 
years of the nineteenth century it ex- 
perienced hard times being occupied by 
the Danes in 1801 and by the French in 
1806. The latter, under Devout, treated 
the inhabitants very harshly and also 
seized the treasure of the Bank amount- 
ing to about seven million marks. A 
return to its old prosperity began with 
the fall of Napoleon and even the de- 
structive fire of 1842, which burned 
nearly half the town, failed to have 
any serious drawback on its progress. 
In consequence of this disastrous fire 
Hamburg is a very modern town in 
appearance and most of its important 
public buildings and institutions date 
only from 1842. Among the more note- 
worthy of these are the churches of 
St. Michael, St. Peter, and St. Nicholas, 
the town hall, marine office or See- 
u'arte, the museums of fine art, arts 
and crafts, botany, and natural history, 
the commercial and municipal libraries 
(the latter of considerable value), the 
hygenic institute, and a fine hospital. 

Hamburg occupies a distinguished 
place in the history of German litera- 
ture and drama, having been the home 
of Lessing, Heine, Hageborn, Klop- 
stock, Voss, Reimarus, Claudius, and 

During the last century its popula- 
tion has increased tenfold. from 
106,983 in 1811 to over a million at the 
present time it is thus the second 
largest city in the German Empire. 

During the second half of the nine- 
teenth century Hamburg's trade de- 
veloped in an extraordinary manner, 
this increasing from about a hundred 
and fifty million dollars in 1851 to over 
twelve hundred million dollars in 1904. 
But this only represented its sea trade 
and in addition its rail and river borne 
trade with the interior of Germany in- 
creased to a proportionate extent dur- 
ing the same period. As further 
evidence of its prosperity we find that 
while in 1871 it owned 448 seagoing 
vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 
214,280, in 1904 the port possessed 1009 
seagoing vessels with a total tonnage of 
1,256,640. It is the headquarters of the 
famous Hamburg-American line which 
owns one of the finest fleets of pas- 
senger steamships in the world. 

The greater part of the harbour con- 
stitutes a free port, which was con- 
structed in 1883-8 at an approximate 
cost of thirty-five million dollars. Its 
total area is 2570 acres, of which 1750 
acres are land surface. The port is 

one of the chief points of embarkation 
for emigrants from the middle and east 
of Europe, the greater number of which 
proceed to the United States. 

The industry of Hamburg is a. long 
way inferior to its commerce, yet the 
town possesses large tobacco, chemical, 
india-rubber, and furniture factories, 
engineering works, shipbuilding yards, 
printing offices, breweries, distilleries, 

The State of Hamburg has an area of 
160 square miles and a population just 
about equalling that of its capital, i. e. 
900,000. Over ninety per cent, of its in- 
habitants are Evangelical Protestants. 
The State retains its ancient independ- 
ence, the legislative power being vested 
in a Senate of eighteen members and a 
House of Burgesses numbering 160 
members. The executive power is almost 
entirely in the hands of the Senate. 
The State has one vote in the Federal 
Council of the Empire and sends three 
members to the Imperial Diet. 


Of the three Free and Hanseatic 
towns Bremen was the first to issue 
postage stamps, its first labels being on 
sale in 1855, and it was not until Janu- 
ary 1st, 1859, that Hamburg and Lubeck 
joined the ranks of stamp issuing towns 
and states. The stamps of Hamburg 
had a somewhat restricted use, being 
only used on local letters for the city 
and its suburbs, and for franking cor- 
respondence to the neighbouring states 
and to the Netherlands, while they were 
also available on "ship-letters" sent to 
Great Britain. This seeming reluctance 
to issue postage stamps, considering the 
commercial importance of the port, was 
probably due to the fact that Thurn and 
Taxis, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden and 
Norway, Hanover and Mecklenburg, all 
had offices in the city and it was through 
these that the general continental letters 
were forwarded. The Thurn and Taxis 
office seems to have had the major por- 
tion of the postal trade and practically 
all foreign letters went through this 
agency. The first set of stamps con- 
sisted of seven values ^, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 
and 9 schilling and in 1864 these were 
augmented by the addition of 1*4 and 
2^sch stamps, all of these being im- 
perforate. In September, 1864, several 
of the values appeared perforated and 
by April of the following year all had 
been issued in this condition. In Feb- 
ruary, 1865, the color of the 7sch was 
changed from orange to lilac, pre- 
sumably to prevent confusion with the 

9sch. In 1866 a l^sch stamp was 
issued, and at the same time the design 
of the IJ^sch label was altered. The 
North German Confederation came into 
being on January 1st, 1868, and Ham- 
burg, having joined this, ceased to issue 
its own distinctive stamps. 

The currency was in marks and 
schillings, a Hamburg mark, equal to 
about 28c, being divided into 16 schil- 
ling, and this continued until the unifi- 
cation of German currency in 1875 i. e., 
seven years after Hamburg's stamps had 
been superseded. 

For a proper appreciation of these 
stamps a knowledge of the postal tariffs 
obtaining at the time of their use is 
necessary, and in this connection the 
following extract from Mr. R. R. 
Thiele's excellent article, "The Why and 
Wherefore of Various Stamps," which 
appeared in the Philatelic Record for 
July, 1906, is particularly interesting: 
The l / 2 schilling stamp was intended 
to cover the rate on printed matter 
per lot (= ounce) to Ritzebuttel (a 
suburb of Hamburg), to Bremen, Lu- 
beck, and the Grand Duchy of Olden- 
burg. The 1 schilling was the letter 
rate on local letters and to Bergedorf, 
also the rate on printed matter to 
Heligoland, to the Netherlands, and 
to Great Britain. The 2 schilling was 
for the single letter rate to the out- 
lying towns on Hamburg territory, to 
the Vierlande, to Ritzebuttel and Lu- 
beck. The 3 schilling was intended 
for single letters to Bremen and the 
larger part of Oldenburg, while the 
4 schilling covered the letter rate to 
Heligoland and to certain towns in 
Oldenburg. The 7 schilling, orange, 
was for letters to the larger part of 
the Netherlands, and after July 1st, 
1859, to Great Britain and Ireland. 
The 9 schilling at first served the 
letter rate to Great Britain and Ire- 
land; after the reduction to 7sch it 
served in combinations for various 
foreign rates. 

The Danish war brought the issue 
of a new value. The Danish post 
office at Hamburg had always handled 
the correspondence to Schleswig- 
Hplstein. When the war broke out, 
this office was cut off from the mother 
country and the Hamburg authorities 
took charge of it. The Danish rate 
to Schleswig-Holstein was 4 skilling ; 
for a few days after February 21st, 
1864, the date of taking possession, 
the office continued to use the Danish 
stamps of that value. But new stamps 
of the value of 1% schilling courant, 
the equivalent of 4 skilling Danish, 
were ordered immediately and issued 

for the first time on February 29th. 
This value, then, served for the letter 
rate to Schleswig-Holstein and to 
Denmark. Denmark immediately re- 
taliated by raising the letter rate from 
Denmark to Hamburg to 8 skilling ; 
Hamburg followed suit by issuing the 
2 l / 2 schilling, green, on April 2nd, 

1864, to serve the letter rate to Den- 
mark, 2 l / 2 schilling courant equaling 8 
rigsbankskilling ; the rate to Schles- 
wig-Holstein remained at 1^4 schilling, 
but the rate to Altona was lowered to 
l / 2 schilling on September 7th, 1864, 
and the l /2 schilling also served on 
printed matter to the Duchies from 
March 1st, 1865. On January 1st, 

1865, the rate on letters within the 
city of Hamburg was reduced to l /2 
schilling, so that the l / 2 schilling in its 
perforated state is comparatively com- 
mon. This is also the reason why the 
North German Confederation after- 
wards issued a special stamp of the 
value of l /2 schilling for Hamburg. 
The l /2 schilling rate was extended to 
the adjacent territory on March 1st, 

1866, and to Bergedorf and the Vier- 
lande on June 15th, 1866. 

From January 1st, 1865, all the 
stamps of Hamburg served a large 
variety of foreign rates, as on that 
date an arrangement went into effect 
whereby all letters within Hamburg, 
no matter for what office they were 
intended, were collected from all let- 
ter-boxes by the municipal post office 
and then turned over to the foreign 
offices. All such letters dropped into 
the boxes would be prepaid either by 
the respective foreign stamps or by 
Hamburg stamps: in the latter case 
the postoffices made settlement with 
each other on the basis of the for- 
eign rates. The municipal post office 
in some cases made a little profit 
here, as its stamps did not always 
correspond to the foreign rates, and in 
such cases the next higher stamp had 
to be used. For instance, the 1 
silbergroschen rate to the German- 
Austrian Postal Union corresponded 
to 1 1/3 schilling courant; as there 
was no such stamp, 1^ schilling's 
worth of stamps had to be affixed. 
The 2 silbergroschen rate answered to 
22/3 schilling courant; for this a 3 
schilling stamp had to be used, the 
municipal post office pocketing the 
difference. The 4 schilling stamp, of 
course, exactly corresponded to the 3 
silbergroschen rate. 

About this time some changes in 
rates took place. The money-order 
system was introduced on March 1st, 
1866, and the 2 schilling stamp was 


thereafter also used for money orders 
to Schleswig-Holstein up to 62 mark 
courant. From May 14th, 1866, the 
same stamp was permitted to be used 
for the registration fee for Hamburg 
and territory, which theretofore was 
paid in cash; for July 1st, 1866, the 
letter rate to Heligoland was lowered 
to 2 schilling. The 3 schilling stamp 
. . . was used from July 1st, 186G, 
for the registration fee to Heligoland 
and from November 1st, 1866, for the 
registration fee to the Netherlands. 
On November 1st, 1866, the letter rate 
to the entire Netherlands was reduced 
to 4 schilling. 

The letter rate to Lubeck was re- 
duced to 1^ schilling on October 1st, 
1865, and the printed matter rate to 
the Netherlands to the same on July 
1st, 1865 ; hence a stamp of that value 
became desirable, and was issued on 
April 1st, 1866. 


The first postage stamps for Hamburg 
were placed on sale on January 1st, 1859, 
the set consisting of seven different val- 
ues. The design, which is the same for 
all denominations, consisted of the Arms 
of Hamburg, partially covered by large 
open numerals denoting the value, as a 
centerpiece. The Arms are composed 
of a castle with three towers, the cen- 
tral one being surmounted by a dome 
and the others by battlements. Above 
the middle tower is a cross, while large 
stars are shown above the side turrets. 
On a ribbon scroll at the top is "HAM- 
BURG," and on a similar scroll at the 
base is "POSTMARKE," i. e. "post 
stamp." On the left, reading upwards, 
the value is shown in words, and on the 
right "Schilling" appears. As the in- 
scriptions on the left hand side varied in 
length, according to the value which had 
to be expressed, small ornaments were 
introduced to fill the vacant spaces be- 
fore and after the shorter words. 

There was a separate die for each 
value, and these were engraved by a 
gentleman rejoicing in the euphonious 

name of Johann Friedrich Rex Ziesen- 
ist. He may also have been responsible 
for the design but regarding this there 
appears to be no record. From each die 
ninety-six casts were taken in ordinary 
type metal, and these, arranged in 
twelve horizontal rows of eight, formed 
the printing plates. There was a space 
of 3^2 mm. between the vertical rows 
and of 1^ mm. between the horizontal 
rows. A line of printer's rule was 
inserted between each of the vertical 
rows, and as these were the same height 
as the cliches they show at the sides of 
the stamps. Each horizontal row was 
numbered in the margin at each end, and 
at the top of each sheet the inscription 
"Hamburgische Postmarken" were 
shown. The plates were made and the 
stamps printed by Th. G. Meissner, 
printer to the State of Hamburg. 

Whether by accident or design we 
cannot say but on all stamps engraved 
by Ziesenist there are so-called "secret 
marks." As these are of considerable 
value in distinguishing originals from 
the many forgeries that exist, we give a 
list of these as follows: 

Y-2. schilling. There is a small dash in 
the space between the base of the right 
hand tower and the line above "Schil- 

i schilling. The serif at the foot of 
the "T" of "POSTMARKE" ends with 
a dot at the left hand side. 

<? schilling. There is a tiny dot under 
the first "1" of "Schilling," and, in clear- 
ly printed specimens, a small dash above 
the "ng" of the same word. 

j schilling. There is a dot on the left 
side of the "H" of "HAMBURG" near 
the top of the letter, and, in most cases, 
another dot is shown under the "r" of 

4 schilling. There is a dot between 
the letters "Sc" of "Schilling" 

/ schilling. There is a dot in the 
space at the right of the Arms opposite 
the top of the "S" of "Schilling." 

9 schilling. There is a tiny dot after 
the "P" of "POSTMARKE" level with 
the bottom of that letter. 

In an article by M. Georges Brunei, 
translated in the Postage Stamp, Vol. 
VIII, numerous other little peculiarities 
are detailed but as most of these only 
show on certain stamps they evidently 
did not appear on the original die but 
were caused in making the type-metal 

The stamps were all printed on white 
wove paper, each sheet being water- 
marked with twelve horizontal undula- 
ting lines (each undulation being about 


15 mm. deep) bounded by a single line 
frame. It was intended that these lines 
should correspond with the twelve rows 
of stamps, but owing to some sheets not 
being carefully "fed" into the printing 
press an outside row was occasionally 
printed on the plain portion of the paper, 
and these stamps were thus entirely 
without watermark. Other varieties, 
caused by irregular feeding of the paper, 
show vertical line watermark. 

The stamps of this issue were not 
perforated, and they were gummed with 
a brown gum which gives some speci- 
mens the appearance of having been 
printed on toned paper. The remainders 
of these stamps were all without gum, 
the issued stamps, with the original 
brown gum, being at least twice as 
scarce as the remainders. With the 
solitary exception of the 7sch the 
stamps are all rarer used than unused. 
Fairly distinct shades of the 4, 7, and 
9sch may be found but the others differ 
hardly at all. 

Reference List. 

1st, 1859. Watermarked 

lines. Imperf. 
^sch black, Scott's No. 1. 
Isch brown, Scott's No. 2. 
2sch red, Scott's No. 5. 
3sch blue, Scott's No. 9. 
4sch green, Scott's No. 10. 
7sch orange, Scott's No. 11. 



9sch yellow, Scott's No. 32. 


In 1864, Hamburg occupied the Dan- 
ish post-office in that city, owing to the 
war between Prussia and Austria and 
Denmark, as explained in our introduc- 
tory notes, and a stamp of l^sch was 
wanted immediately. This was issued 
on February 29th but while it was being 
prepared the ^sch was bisected and 
the halves used in making up the l^sch 
rate. Though no decree seems to have 
been issued authorising this bisection 
the authorities appear to have permitted 
it and undoubtedly bona-fide "splits"- 
used on original covers are known. A 
month after the issue of the 

label the retaliatory tactics pursued by 
Hamburg and Denmark resulted in the 
issue of a 2^sch stamp. Both of these 
values were produced by lithography, 
presumably owing to the fact that they 
were wanted in a hurry. 

The central design on the 1% sch is 
very similar to that of the series of 1859 
but with a netted background. The 
name "HAMBURG" is arched at the 
top. "POSTMARKS" is on a straight 
label which extends right across the 
foot of the stamp and the value is 
shown in words on the side tablets. 
In each of the upper angles an uncol- 
ored* Maltese cross is shown on a 
ground of solid color. 

There was a space of 3 mm. between 
the stamps of both the vertical and 
horizontal rows, and lines were ruled in 
these in both directions corresponding 
with the vertical lines appearing in the 
preceding series. There were no fig- 
ures at the ends of the horizontal rows 
and no marginal inscription was shown 
at the top of the sheet. According to 
the late Mr. W. A. S. Westoby "it 
would seem that later on in the same 
year another transfer was made, as the 
stamps are found closer together on the 
sheet, being Z l / 2 mm. apart, vertically 
and horizontally, with lines between and 
numerals opposite each vertical and 
horizontal row." Impressions from this 
second plate, we are told, may be recog- 
nised by their indistinct and blurred 
appearance and the fact that the color 
is always a deep red-lilac. 

Basing his remarks on the wonderful 
study of these stamps made by Mr. 
Vicenz in 1907, M. Brunei takes us much 
deeper into the subject. We learn that 
the stamps were printed in sheets of 192 
stamps arranged in two panes of ninety- 
six each, placed side by side. In mak- 
ing up the lithographic stone the litho- 
grapher took twelve transfers from his 
original drawing making a block of 
three horizontal rows of four. This 
block was then re-transferred to the 
stone sixteen times. Each of the twelve 
stamps in the transfer block differs in 
minute particulars from the others giv- 
ing twelve types and these were ar- 
ranged on the stone as follows : 

























































































9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 

Those of our readers who wish to 
study the peculiarities distinguishing 
the types should refer to M. Brunei's 
article in the Postage Stamp. 

Mr. Westoby's supposition that there 
was a second stone was amply proved 
by Mr. Vicenz. This was also com- 
posed of sixteen transfers of a block of 
twelve but, as the original transfer 
block had been destroyed, a new one 
had to be made, consequently the types 
differ from those of the first stone. 

The design of the 2 l / 2 schilling was 
similar as regards the centerpiece, but 
all the inscriptions were on straight tab- 
lets, and in the corners were Maltese 
crosses enclosed in small squares. The 
stamps were arranged about 2 l / 2 mm. 
apart, both vertically and horizontally, 
and they show dividing lines as in the 
l^sch. There were numerals opposite 
the ends of each vertical and horizontal 

M. Brunei tells us that there were 
also two stones for this value, each be- 
ing composed of two panes of 96 stamps 
and each of these stones, like the l^sch 
being composed of transfers of twelve 
types, all differing in small particulars. 
Those of our readers interested cannot 
do better than study M. Brunei's article 
already referred to. 

Both values were printed on white 
wove paper watermarked with undulat- 
ing lines as shown in the typographed 
stamps. They were issued imperforate 
and with gum of a much paler tinge 
than that employed for the preceding 

The stamps were lithographed by the 
firm of C. Adler, of Hamburg and the 
designs were apparently drawn by one 
of the employees of the firm. Mr. R. 
































































































R. Thiele tells us that "the original 
stone is still in existence, on which the 
drawing of the Insert may be seen in 
close proximity to the letterhead of a 
wholesale liquor dealer." (Philatelic 
Record, Vol. XXXI, page 118.) The 
lJ4 scn may be found in numerous 
shades ranging from deep red-lilac to 
grey. There was also a small printing 
in blue. The 2^sch on the other hand, 
hardly varies in tint at all. 

Reference List. 

1864. Lithographed. Wmk. undulating lines. 

8. 114 sch red-lilac, Scott's No. 3 or ?,a. 

9. I%sch grey, Scott's No. 4. 

10. 1% sch blue, Scott's No. 5. 

11. 2^ sch green, Scott's No. 7. 


Between September, 1864, and April, 
1865, all the values included in the 
two series already described appeared 
perforated 13^, the perforation being 
done by single line or guillotine ma- 

In February, 1865, the color of the 
7sch was changed from yellow to 
mauve, probably to prevent confusion 
with the 9sch. Wherever fresh print- 
ings were made the stamps were manu- 
factured by the same processes as be- 
fore, i. e., lithography for the l%sch 
and 2Hsch values, and typography for 
the other denominations. The same 
plates and stones were used and the 
typographed stamps were printed by 
Meissner and the lithographed ones by 
Adler as before. 

All values were printed on the paper 
watermarked with undulating lines, and, 
as in the previous issues, specimens 
from the outer rows of the sheets are 
occasionally found without watermark. 
The ^sch, Isch and 2sch hardly vary 
in shade at all, but most of the other 
values exist in quite an array of tints. 

The 3sch in the ultramarine shade 
and the 7sch in mauve are both known 
imperforate but it seems highly improb- 
able that either was ever issued for use 


in this state. The J^sch, 3sch, and 7sch 
values are known imperforate vertically 
and the 9sch may be found imperforate 

Reference List. 
1864-5. Wmk. Undulating lines. Perf. 13^. 

12. ^sch black, Scott's No. 13. 

(a) Imperf. vertically. 

13. Isch brown, Scott's No. 14. 

14. l^sch mauve, Scott's No. 15, 15a or 


15. 2sch red, Scott's No. 16. 

16. 2^sch green, Scott's No. 17 or 17a. 

17. 3sch blue, Scott's No. 18 or 19. 

(a) Imperf. 

(b) Imperf. vertically. 
la 4sch green, Scott's No. 20. 

19. 7sch orange, Scott's No. 21. 

(a) Imperf. vertically. 

20. 7sch mauve, Scott's No. 22. 

(a) Imperf. 

21. 9sch yellow, Scott's No. 23. 

(a) Imperf. horizontally. 


Although the letter rate to Lubeck 
was reduced to l^sch on October 1st, 
1865, and the printed matter rate to the 
Netherlands was fixed at the same fig- 
ure on July 1st, 1865, it was not until 
April, 1866, that the postal authorities 
troubled to issue a stamp of this value. 

In this month a series of envelopes 
with embossed stamps of the values of 
l / 2 , 1%, l l / 2 , 2, 3, 4 and 7sch was issued, 
these being manufactured in Berlin by 
the Prussian State Printing Office. The 
die for the l^sch envelope stamp was 
made use of in the construction of a 
plate for printing the adhesive stamp 
of corresponding value. The plate con- 
sisted of one hundred impressions ar- 
ranged in ten horizontal rows of ten, 
and the stamps were embossed in color 
on plain white wove paper. These 
stamps were rouletted 10 instead of be- 
ing perforated. 



The central portion of the design is 
very similar to that of the stamps of 
the preceding issues, and shows the 
numerals and Arms on a ground of 
solid color within an octagonal frame. 
Around this the usual inscriptions are 
placed in the same order as before, and 
these are separated at the corners by 
six-rayed stars or asterisks, each having 
an uncplored circle in the centre. The 
whole is enclosed in a double-lined oc- 
tagonal frame. 

In the following June the litho- 
graphed IJ^sch stamp was superseded 
by an embossed label of similar value. 
This was also manufactured by the 
Prussian State Printing Office and, as in 
the case of the l^sch the plate was 
constructed from the die for the l^sch 
envelope stamp. The plate was of simi- 
lar size containing one hundred impres- 
sions in ten rows of ten. The design 
is very similar to that of the l^sch the 
inscriptions being on an octagonal bor- 
der separated by stars; but the stamp 
was converted into a complete rectangle 
by adding a number of diagonal 
parallel lines to each of the four corners. 
This stamp was likewise embossed 
in color on white wove unwatermarked 
paper and rouletted 10. 

Mr. Brunei points out that the genu- 
ine stamps exhibit the following pecul- 
iarities : 

(a). The figures "1" are formed of 
ernbossed cross-hatching which runs 
diagonally from top to bottom and 
from right to left. 

(b). In the 1J4 schilling, under the 
"1," the second line (forming the 
background of stonework of the tow- 
ers; is broken. 

(c). In the \ l / 2 schilling the first 
and second "i" of the indication of 
value (at left) are joined to the bot- 
tom of the following "n" (more visi- 
ble in the case of the first than of the 
second), likewise the letters of the 
last word "halb." 

(d). The "K" of "POSTMARKS" 
has the base smaller than the upper 

These values show practically no 
variation of shade. 

Reference List. 

1866. Embossed. No wmk. Rouletted 10. 

22. l^sch mauve, Scott's No. 25 or 25a. 

23. l^sch rose, Scott's No. 26. 


In June, 1867, one more change took 
place in the stamps of Hamburg before 
the special issues were finally sup- 
pressed in favor of the general issue 
for the North German Confederation. 
A further supply of 2^sch stamps was 
required, and as these could not be sat- 
isfactorily produced from Mr. Adler's 
lithographic stone, typography was re- 
sorted to and the old type of 1859 was 


These stamps were manufactured by 
Th. G. Meissner, of Hamburg and it is 
probable the die was engraved by J. F. 
R. Ziesenist, who was responsible for 
the other dies of the same type. The 
"secret mark" on this value corresponds 
with that found on the 2sch of the 1859 
series that is, there is a small colored 
dot under the first "1" of "Schilling." 

The stamps were printed on the paper 
watermarked with undulating lines, and 
they were perforated by the 13*/2 ma- 
chine. There are a number of distinct 
shades, and the variety is known im- 
perforate and also imperforate horizon- 

Compared with the other typographed 
stamps this value was produced in a 
very inferior manner, this being due, 
probably, to the fact that it had to be 
manufactured in somewhat of a hurry. 

Reference List. 
1867. Typographed. Wmk. Undulating lines. 

1M. 2^sch green. Scott's No. 24. 

(a) Imperf. 

(b) Imperf. horizontally. 


In 1868, shortly after the stamps 
were replaced by the issue for the North 
German Confederation, the remainders 
were offered for sale and found a pur- 
chaser in the late Mr. J. Goldner, a 
well-known stamp dealer of Hamburg. 
How many stamps were included in this 
lot is a matter regarding which no in- 
formation has been published that we 
know of. It would appear that these 
remainders were all specially printed 
for sale if we can place any reliance on 
a statement that when the stamps were 
demonetised "only one sheet of the 154 
and 2*/ 2 schilling remained over, some 
imperforate sheets of the second issue 
of the 1^4 schilling, and some defective 
sheets." If this were the case then the 
fact that the remainders had no gum 
is easily accounted for. 

Having very few of the lithographed 
V/4 and 2^sch Mr. Goldner ap- 
proached the lithographer, Mr. C. 
Adler, and finding the original draw- 
ings were available commissioned him 
to make new stones of these values. 

Though the design was the same as the 
originals the stones were laid down in 
a different fashion. For the lJ4sch a 
block of sixteen transfers was made (in 
four rows of four) and this was re- 
transferred to the stone six times mak- 
ing sheets of 96 stamps. 1 These types 
all show little peculiarities differing 
from the issued stamps, these being de- 
tailed in full in Mr. Brunei's article in 
the "Postage Stamp," already alluded 
to. The "plate" for the 2^sch also 
consisted of 96 stamps but in this in- 
stance the transfers were applied in 
blocks of four. 

These reprints appear to have been 
made in 1872. At first unwatermarked 
paper was used and then a quantity of 
the original watermarked paper being 
discovered this was used. These "re- 
iprints" are known imperforate, perf. 
ll l /2, and perf. 13^. Those on unwater- 
marked paper or perf. 11^ can easily 
be distinguished for there were no 
originals of this sort; and those on 
watermarked paper, perf. 13^, may be 
told by the roughness of the perfora- 
tions compared with the originals. 
Though the official perforating ma- 
chines were used the pins had become 
worn causing the "rough" effect. 

About the same period reprints, or 
rather imitations, of the 1J4 and l^sch 
stamps of 1866 were made. These were 
printed on white wove unwatermarked 
paper and are found rouletted 8J^ as 
well as the 10 of the originals. The 
"reprint" of the l%sch is from a re- 
touched die and it differs from the 
originals in having the small circles in 
the center of the four rosettes, which 
separate the inscriptions, filled in with 
color. There is also no line in the up- 
per part of the "g" of "Schilling." The 
l^sch was reprinted from the envelope 
die, and has a longer line in the upper 
part of the "g" of "Schilling," while the 
corner stars also have solid centers. 
The paper is thicker and the color of 
the impression does not show through 
as in the case of the originals. Both 
"reprints" exist with forged postmarks. 


The few reprints, as we have already 
pointed out, were made privately some 
years after the stamps had become obso- 
lete, and these should present no diffi- 
culties to the collector. Forgeries of 
most of the values are very common, 
but as most of these are very roughly 
executed they should hardly deceive the 
collector exercising ordinary care. 

As the majority of Hamburg stamps 
are rarer used than unused, genuine 
stamps with counterfeit postmarks are 
by no means uncommon. A very usual 
form of cancellation consists of a circle 
containing the name of the town and 
the date, and readers should take note 
of the fact that such marks with a star 
or floret before and after the name 
"HAMBURG" are undoubtedly bad. 

Equally common is a postmark com- 
posed of four parallel lines, either thick 
or thin, 20 mm. long and about 5mm. 
apart. The forgeries of this usually 
have the lines too short, more than 
four, irregularly spaced, or thickened at 
the ends. There is also a cancellation 
composed of four wavy lines, but the 
use of this seems to have been confined 
to the first issue only, and it is rarely 
met with. 


Hanover, or Hannover, as our Teu- 
tonic friends spell it, was formerly a 
kingdom of Northern Germany, but 
since 1866 it has formed a province- of 
Prussia. It stretches eastwards from 
the Netherlands to the Elbe, and from 
the North Sea southwards to Hesse- 
Nassau, and includes the former duchy 
of East Friesland, the Liineburg Heath 
(55 miles long), part of the Harz Moun- 
tains, and outliers of the' Weser Moun- 
tains. Its total area is 14,833 square 
miles and it has a population well in ex- 
cess of two and a half millions. Ex- 
cept in the South, where the Harz 
Mountains attain a height of 3037 feet, 
the surface belongs to the great North 
German plain, with immense stretches 
of moor and heath. Large areas of the 
moorlands have been drained and re- 
claimed within recent years. Hanover 
is watered by the Elbe, Weser, Ems and 
their tributaries, and the soil near the 
rivers is very fertile. One sixth of the 
total area is covered with forest. 

The people of the north-eastern and 
central provinces are mostly Saxons; 
those on the coast are of Friscian origin ; 
those on the west of the Ems, Dutch; 
and those in the southern provinces, 
Thuringians and Franconians. Platt- 
Deutsch, or Low German, is commonly 
spoken in the rural districts, but High 
German is the language of the educated 
classes, and is spoken with -more purity 
than in any other part of the Empire. 

Cattle are bred and grazed on the 
marshes next the North Sea. Ironware 
and steel goods, textiles, sugar, machin- 
ery, gutta-percha and india-rubber, 
chemicals, scientific instruments, beer 
and spirits, are the more important pro- 
ducts of Hanover's manufacturing in- 
dustry, while Geeseemunde is one of the 
most important fishing ports in Ger- 
many. Coal, iron, zinc, lead, copper and 
salt are mined in the Harz Mountains. 

The second elector of Hanover became 
George I of England in 1714, and from 

that date until 1837 the Hanoverian 
electors sat on the English throne. 
When Queen Victoria ascended the 
throne Hanover passed to her uncle 
the Duke of Cumberland. On his death 
(November 18th, 1851) his son, the 
blind George V, succeeded to the king- 
dom, and he, siding with Austria in 
1866, took up arms against Prussia, was 
defeated, driven from his throne, 'and 
Hanover was annexed to Prussia. 

The capital of the province bears the 
same name, Hanover, and is situated on 
a sub-tributary of the Weser, 78 miles 
south-east of Bremen, and 158 miles 
west of Berlin. It consists of the old 
town, with narrow streets and mediaeval 
houses, and the handsome modern town 
which lies on the north, east, and south- 
east of the older portion. During the 
last quarter of the nineteenth century 
the town grew at an enormous rate, and 
at the present time its population ex- 
ceeds a quarter of a million. The old 
town possesses several fourteenth, fif- 
teenth, and seventeenth century build- 
ings, such as the former royal palace, 
the town hall (1439), the chancellery of 
justice, and the house of Leibnitz, now 
converted into an industrial art museum. 
Intermingled with these are a number 
of quite new structures (1876 to 1911), 
such as the magnificent railway station; 
the royal library (containing 200,000 
volumes and 4,000 MSS) ; the royal 
playhouse, one of the largest theatres 
in Germany; the museum, with natural 
history and art collections; the Kestner 
Museum, with antiquities and 120,000 en- 
gravings ; the post office; and 'the 
Reichsbank. Hanover has a famous 
polytechnic, housed in the Welf (Guelph) 
Castle, and attended by over 1,500 stu- 
dents. Close by is the Heddenhausen 
Castle (1698) the favorite residence of 
Kings George I, II, and V, whose beau- 
tiful grounds are open to the public. 
The Duke of Celle chose Hanover for 
his residence in 1636, and it has re- 
mained the capital city from that date. 

Hanover is the headquarters of the 
10th German Army Corps, and is an 
important centre of the North German 
railway system. 


The philatelic history of Hanover 
dates from 1850 the .year before the 
death of King Ernest (Duke of Cum- 
berland) when a single stamp bearing 
the face value of one gutengroschen was 
issued. In 1851 Hanover joined the 
German-Austrian Postal Union, and a 
series of stamps was issued on July 21st 
of that year for defraying the rates of 
postage within the Union. In 1856 
colored papers were dispensed with and 
the stamps were overprinted with a 
colored network instead. In 1859 the 
stamps with values expressed in frac- 
tions of a thaler were superseded by a 
new series bearing the portrait of King 
George V. and with values denoted in 
groschen. Until 1864 all the stamps 
were imperforate, but in that year five 
values were issued with a roulette (per- 
ccs en arc) gauging 16, and in 1866, on 
the annexation of Hanover by Prussia, 
the whole of the stamps, with the ex- 
ception of a few sheets, were burned. 

The currency was the thaler, divided 
at first into twenty-four gutengroschen 
of twelve pfennig each, and. after 1858. 
into thirty groschen of ten pfennig each. 


The first issue consisted of a single 
stamp, bearing the facial value of one 
gutengroschen, which was placed on 
sale on December 1st, 1850. The design 
shows a large open numeral "1", in- 
scribed "GUTEXGR.", in a shield with 
an arabesque ground. This is sur- 
mounted by the Anglo-Hanoverian arms 

on a rather minute scale. According to 
an article in the Philatelic Record, these 
arms are, with a slight difference, the 
same as those borne by George III and 
succeeding British sovereigns of the 
Hanoverian House, from 1801 until 
William IV's death in 1837. These arms 
are, quarterly : one and four, England ; 

two, Scotland; three, Ireland; with, on 
an escutcheon of pretence, Brunswick, 
Luneberg, and Westphalia, and over all, 
(in the centre), the golden crown of 
Charlemagne, the mark of the dignity of 
arch-treasurer of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire, which belonged to the house of 
Brunswick. The supporters are the lion 
and unicorn, and beneath is the motto 
"To undertake and to finish." There is 
a scroll at the foot, with the ends run- 
ning up by the sides of the shield, on 
which is "HANNOVER" at the top, 
"FRANCO" at the left, "EIN. GGR." 
at the right, and numerals in each of 
the lower angles. The period after 
"EIN" was evidently inserted in error, 
for it is quite unnecessary and is not re- 
peated on any of the other values is- 
sued in succeeding years. 

The die was engraved by Herr 
Fickenscher, a Hanoverian engraver, 
and the plate was made and the stamps 
printed by hand presses at the type 
foundry and printing works of Senator 
Culemann, in Hanover. The form con- 
sisted of 120 casts, taken in type-metal 
from the original die, which were ar- 
ranged in twelve horizontal rows of ten. 
As is usual with stamps manufactured 
by this process, there are plenty of 
minor varieties, consisting chiefly of 
breaks and flaws in the frame and other 
lines, and defective letters. The letter- 
ing of the motto, in particular, is full 
of defects, and a perfect inscription is 
the exception rather than otherwise. 

The stamp was printed in black on 
colored paper, manufactured by Osna- 
bruck, which was watermarked with 
rectangles of about the same size as the 
stamps. Like all the other stamps is- 
sued prior to 1864, this Iggr was im- 

A peculiarity of this and other Han- 
overian stamps is the red gum which 
was used until about 1864. In the "Ad- 
tiesive Postage Stamps of Europe" the 
late Mr. W. A. S. Westoby made the 
following comments regarding this 
colored gum: "What was the real rea- 
son for employing colored gum does not 
appear, but tradition says it was useful 
in the cases of stamps becoming de- 
tached from letters, as the red stain 
showed that the letters had been 
stamped, and had lost the stamps during 
transit. This explanation seems rather 
lame, for even if it were of any use 
when there was only one stamp, it 
could be of none where there were sev- 
eral." However, the fact that the gum 
was colored is of considerable impor- 
tance to stamp collectors, for it forms 
the best test in distinguishing originals 
from reprints. 


To a certain extent this stamp was ex- 
perimental, for it could not be used on 
foreign correspondence, but prepaid the 
single letter rate within the kingdom it- 
self, and also to Bremen, Hamburg, 
Bremerhaven, Ritzebiittel, and Vegesack 
in each of which towns the Hanoverian 
authorities maintained a post office. 

At this period the thaler was worth 
about 78c so the facial value of this 
stamp in United States currency was 
about 3c. 

Reference List. 
December, 1850. Wmk. a Rectangle. Imperf. 

1. Iggr black on grey blue, Scott's No. 1. 


Presumably the experiment of issuing 
postage stamps soon proved quite sat- 
isfactory, for in 1851 Hanover joined 
the German-Austrian Postal Union, and 
on July 21st, three new stamps were is- 
sued with values expressed in fractions 
of a thaler. The stamps were all of 
similar design, closely resembling that 
of the Iggr but having the groundwork 
of the shield in solid color. The l/30th 
was inscribed "EIN SGR." (i. e. Isgr) 
in that portion of the scroll by the right- 
hand side of the shield, and the l/15th 
and l/10th were inscribed "ZWEI 
SGR." and "DREI SGR." respectively, 
while at the bases the numerals "1", "2", 
or "3" appeared, to correspond with 
these inscriptions. 

It appears that all the states com- 
prised in the German-Austrian Postal 
Union at first tacitly and then formally 
agreed to use similar colors for stamps 
of similar values (an arrangement after- 
wards adopted by the Universal Postal 
Union for certain values) so red, blue, 
and orange were the colors selected for 
the 1/30, 1/15 and 1/10 thaler stamps. 
The rates within the Union for which 
these particular values were required 
were as follows : r 

Up to 10 German miles, Isgr (l/30th). 

Over 10 and under 20 German miles 

Over 20 German miles 3sgr (l/10th). 

As blue was the color chosen for the 
l/15th the color of the paper for the 
Iggr was changed to grey-green. 

The dies for the three new values 
were engraved by Herr Fickenscher, 
while the plates were made and the 
stamps printed at Senator Culemann's 
works as was the case with the first 
stamp issued. Though we can trace no 
positive information on the point it is 
extremely probable that the plates were 
uniform in size and were composed of 
120 type metal casts clamped together in 
twelve horizontal rows of ten. There 
are numerous minor varieties in all 
three values caused by slight imperfec- 
tions in making the casts. These con- 
sist of flaws, broken lines, and defective 
letters and they are so numerous that 
it would probably be far from an im- 
possibility for an enthusiastic specialist 
to plate these stamps. 

All three values were printed in black 
on hand-made colored wove paper which 
was watermarked with a device consist- 

ing of two branches of oak, crossed at 
the stems, and curving upwards in the 
form of an oval. The watermark was 
so arranged that one complete device 
was apportioned to each stamp. The 
papers vary but little in shade with the 
exception of that for the l/30th which 
was changed in color from salmon to 
crimson in 1855. Some philatelists con- 
sider the order of these papers should 
be reversed and that the crimson was 
the earlier shade; but judging from used 
dated copies, there seems to be no 
ground for this supposition. 

The Iggr in its new shade was also 
printed on the paper watermarked with 
oak leaves though the same plate was 
used as before. 

Reference List. 
1851. Wmk. crossed branches of oak. Imperf. 

2. Iggr black on grey-green, Scott's No. 2 

or 2a. 

3. l/30th black on salmon, Scott's No. 4. 

4. l/30th black on crimson, Scott's No. 3. 

5. l/15th black on blue, Scott's No. 5. 

6. l/10th black on yellow, Scott's No. 6 or 


On April 15th, 1853, a new stamp bear- 
ing the facial value of 3 pfennig was 
issued for use on newspapers and other 
printed matter. The design consists of 
an upright vertically lined oval contain- 
ing a large numeral "3" with "PFEX- 
NIGET curved below, "HANNOVER" in 
a straight line above, and a crown at 
the top. Above the upper part of the 
oval is a cartouche with scroll ends 
GROSCHEN," i. e. ^sgr, or less than 
Ic in United States currency. The whole 
is enclosed within a single lined rec- 

pattern is horizontal. At first a fairly 
close mesh was used, but this was not 
considered satisfactory as it gave the 
stamps a blurred or blotchy appearance. 
Although all values were overprinted 
with this fine mesh only the l/10th was 
actually placed in use. The other 
values are, therefore, simply essays or 

This stamp was also engraved by 
Herr Fickenscher. and typographed at 
Senator Culemann's establishment. Al- 
though produced by the same process as 
that employed for the preceding issues, 
this value does not provide many minor 
varieties. The only ones we have no- 
ticed consist of small colored dots or 
lines in one or other of the angles. 

This value was printed on white wove 
paper watermarked in a similar manner 
to that of the 1851 series. The gum is 
red and this variety is always imper- 

Reference List. 

1853. Wmk. crossed branches of oak. 
7. opf pale rose, Scott's No. 7. 



Many objections were raised to the 
use of colored papers for the Hanover- 
ian stamps, and in 1855 it was decided 
to try the experiment of printing the 
stamps on white paper that had prev- 
iously been covered with a colored net- 
work of fine lines. This was done by 
means of stereotype plates, the network 
covering the whole of the sheets and hav- 
ing an ornamental border on the margins. 
The network was so arranged that the 

stamps prepared for use and never is- 
sued. The l/10th with the fine mesh is 
said to have been placed on sale late in 
1855 and the other values with the 
larger network were issued on January 
1st, 1856. The color of the network 
corresponded with the color of the paper 
which had been used previously for the 
several values. The 3pf was printed in 
rose as before, and in this case the mesh 
was black or grey. The l/10th with the 
larger network was issued directly, the 
supply with small mesh was exhausted 
and, unused, this is perhaps the rarest 
individual Hanoverian variety. 

The stamps were all printed on un- 
watermarked paper. They were imper- 
forate and had red gum like the preced- 
ing issues. 

Reference List. 
1855-56. No watermark. Imperf. 

(a) Fine network. 

8. l/10th black with orange network, 

Scott's No. 15 or l"a. 

(b) Coarse network. 

9. 3pf rose with black network, Scott s 

No. 8 or 9. 

10. Iggr black with green network, Scott s 

No. 10. 

11. l/30th black with rose network, Scott s 

No. 11. 

12. l/15th black with blue network, Scott's 

No. 12. 

13. l/10th black with orange network, 

Scott's No. 13 or 13a. 


The currency was revised on October 
1st, 1858, the thaler, which had previous- 
ly been divided into 24 gutengroschen of 
12 pfennig each, being now composed 
of 30 silbergroschen of 10 pfennig each. 
At the same time the 1 gutengroschen 
was withdrawn from circulation and the 
rate of postage for inland single letters 
was altered to 1 groschen. 

A few months later, February 15th, 
1859, to be exact, a series of stamps 
with values conforming to the new cur- 
rency appeared in place of those with 
values expressed in fractions of a thaler. 

The new stamps were of the values 
of 1, 2, and 3 groschen and the design 
shows a profile portrait of King George 
V, with head to left, on a ground of 
solid color enclosed in a circle of pearls. 
Above the medallion is the value "1 (2 
or 3) GROSCHEN" and below is 
"HANNOVER." The whole is enclosed 
within a rectangular frame, the ground 
between the portrait and frame being 
composed of fine vertical lines. There 
are tiny ornaments in each of the 

across the pearled circle below and to 
the left of the "O" of "Groschen." 

At the same time the 3pf, in the de- 
sign already described, was issued with- 
out the colored network. This stamp, 
and also the Igr and 2gr, may be found 
in a number of different shades. 

On March 1st, 1861, a 10 groschen 
stamp was added to the set. This bore 
a similar portrait of the King but the 
numerals of value are much larger than 
those of the previously issued stamps of 
similar type. This denomination was 
only on sale at the chief post-offices and 
was intended for use on heavy packages 
and registered letters. Judging by its 
present rarity its use must .have been 
very restricted. 

On November 10th, 1861, the color of 
the 3gr was changed from yellow to 
brown, in order to make the color of 
this value conform to that which had 
been adopted by the other members of 
the German-Austrian Postal Union for 
this particular denomination. 

All the stamps of this series were 
printed on plain white wove, unwater- 
marked, paper and they were issued im- 
perforate. The gum, which up to this 
time had been red, was changed to 
rose, varying considerably in depth of 

Reference List. 
1859-61. Rose gum. No wmk. Imperf. 

14. 3pf rose, Scott's No. 16. 

15. Igr rose, Scott's Nos. 10, 19a, or 19b. 

16. 2gr blue, Scott's No. 20 or 21. 

17. 3gr yellow, Scott's No. 22 or 22a. 

18. ?>gr brown, Scott's No. 23. 

19. lOgr olive-green, Scott's No. 24. 

One original die served for all three 
values so far as the portrait was con- 
cerned this being engraved by Herr 
Brehmer, engraver to the Mint, from a 
photograph ; while the plates were made 
and stamps printed at Senator Cule- 
mann's printing works. The plates, 
like those for the stamps of the preced- 
ing issues, were composed of 120 type- 
metal casts arranged in twelve horizon- 
tal rows of ten. The head was the same 
for all three values, as we have already 
pointed out, but the frames for the 
three necessary subsiduary dies were 
separately engraved, as may easily be 
proved if the lettering of the inscrip- 
tions is carefully examined. It is in- 
teresting to note that in the case of the 
1 groschen all the pearls of the circle 
are quite distinct ; in the 2gr several 
of those at top of the circle run into 
one another, and there is always a large 
colored dot between the letters "SC" 
of "GROSCHEN"; while in the 3gr 
there is always a small colored line 


A new stamp having the facial value 
of y 2 groschen was issued on April 1st, 
1860. The design of this is quite dif- 
ferent from that of any of the other 
values and consists of a posthorn sur- 
mounted by a crown, with "HAN- 
NOVER" in thick block capitals at the 
top, and " l / 2 Groschen" at the base. The 


j Groschen 

whole is enclosed within a rectangular 
frame with indented corners, outside 
each of which is a small colored dot. 


The die was, presumably, engraved 
by Herr Brehmer, and the stamps were 
printed typographically by Senator 
Culemann. As is so frequently the case 
with electrotyped stamps, this value 
shows many small defects in the shape 
of broken lines and letters, and the ap- 
pearance of tiny dots in various parts 
of the design. 

This stamp was printed on white, 
wove, umvatermarked paper, and was is- 
sued with rose gum, imperforate. A 
later printing appeared with white gum. 
Reference List. 

I860. No wmk. Imperf. 

20. ^gr rose gum, Scott's No. 18a. 

21. l / 2 gr white gum, Scott's No. 18. 


On December 1st, 1863, the color of 
the 3pf stamp was altered in color from 
rose to green, and at the same time the 
inscription on the scroll was changed 
BERGROSCHEN." The former, mean- 
ing ^sgr, was hardly the correct equiv- 
alent of 3 pfennig, as expressed in the 
centre of the stamp, while the modified 
inscription, meaning three-tenths sgr, 
was exactly right. 

Apparently the original die was al- 
tered by Herr Brehmer, and the stamps 
were printed by Senator Culemann as 

The paper was white wove and un- 
watermarked, the gum was of a rose 
color, and the stamp was issued imper- 

Reference List. 
1863. Rose gum. No wmk. Imperf. 

--. 3pf green, Scott's No. 17. 


In 1864 perforation was introduced, 
the system adopted being a form of 
roulette known as perces en arc. The 
cuts were curved and close together, 
and gauged 16. The stamps so treated 
were the 3pf of the seventh issue, and 

l / 2 gr of the sixth issue and the 1, 2 and 
Sgr of the fifth issue. The lOgr had up 
to this date been in so little demand 
that none of them were rouletted. 

The stamps were the same as before 
in all other respects, but before the end 
of 1864 the color of the gum was 
changed to yellowish or white and so 
continued until .late in 1866, when, Han- 
over having been absorbed by Prussia 
as explained in our introductory notes, 
the stamps were no longer available 
for postal purposes. The 2gr with rose 
gum is not known rouletted. 
Reference List. 

1864. No. wmk. Rose on white gum. Perces 
en arc. 16. 

23. 3pf green, Scott's No. 25 or 25a. 

24. Y 2 gr black, Scott's No. 26 or 26a. 

25. Igr rose, Scott's No. 27 or 27a. 

26. 2gr blue, Scott's No. 28. 

27. Sgr brown, Scott's No. 29 or 29a. 


The Iggr of 1850 was reprinted in 
1864 but as the reprints are on unwater- 
marked greyish paper they should be 
easily identified. 

The l/10th of 1851 was reprinted in 
1889 but this can also be distinguished 
with ease as the paper was unwater- 
marked and the gum white. 

All five values of the 1855-56 issue 
were reprinted in 1864 and here the best 
test is the gum, which is yellowish 
white. The network on the reprints 
only extends over blocks of four stamps. 
The l/10th was again reprinted in 1889 
on similar paper and with white gum. 
On this reprint the network was applied 
stamp by stamp. The 3pf of 1889 was 
reprinted in 1889 though this is not a 
true reprint but rather an "official imi- 
tation." A new plate was made from 
a retouched die in which the ribbon 
ends of the scroll point downwards in- 
stead of outwards. The 3gr of the 
same issue was reprinted in 1891 in both 
colors but these reprints can be at once 
identified by the white gum. The /^gr 
was reprinted in 1883, the paper being 
yellowish and the gum white. The only 
value of the rouletted series to be re- 
printed was the 3gr but as the gauge 
is 13 1 /2. instead of 16 it is not likely to 
prove misleading. 


The free city of Lubeck, the smallest 
of the three Hanseatic towns, is situated 
on the Trave about ten miles from its 
mouth. The town, then known as 
Lubeca, was probably founded as early 
as 1060 and, though small, it was rich 
and consequently excited the cupidity of 
some of its larger neighbours. In 1138 
it was entirely devastated by the Rugians 
but was rebuilt in 1143 by Adolf II, 
Count of Holstein. It was ceded to the 
dukes of Saxony in 1158 and under 
Henry the Lion it attained considerable 
prosperity. Duke Henry gave it a civil 
and commercial code (the law of Lu- 
beck) which, later, formed the basis of 
the law of all the Hanseatic towns. 
Lubeck was captured by the Danes in 
1201 and on their expulsion in 1226 it 
was made a free and imperial city, and 
it became the leader of the Hanseatic 
league formed in 1241. It was then at 
the height of its prosperity but the dis- 
solution of the Hansa dealt it a blow 
from which it has never recovered. The 
last Assembly of the Hansa met in Lu- 
beck in 1669 and thence forth it de- 
clined in importance. It was annexed 
by France in 1810 and became the capi- 
tal of the Department of Les Benches 
de 1'Elbe, but it regained its liberty in 
1813 after the battle of Leipzig. In 
August 1866, it joined the North Ger- 
man Confederation, and in 1870 became 
one of the states of the new Empire. 
It has a population of over 90,000. 

Lubeck, like many other Continental 
towns, presents a curious mixture of an- 
cient and modern architecture. Opposite 
the railway station, on the main 
approach to the city, is the famous Hol- 
stenthor, a 15th centruy brick-built gate- 
way, which was renovated in 1870. Of 
its numerous churches the Marienkirche 
founded in 1170, contains valuable 
works of art. Its dome, enlarged dur- 
ing the 13th century, has an altar paint- 
ing by Hans Memling. Another ancient 
edifice is the town hall (1250) which is 
built of black glazed bricks in the style 
of the Renaissance oeriod. 

Lubeck has achieved some little re- 
turn to its former prosperity since it 
joined the Customs Union in 1868. The 
principal shipping trade is with Den- 
mark, Sweden, Russia, and Finland, 
chiefly in chemicals, machinery, linen 
goods, preserved food, and cigars. 

Lubeck is the capital of the small 
state of the same name, which has an 
area of 115 square miles and a popula- 
tion of a little over 100,000. The coun- 
try is fertile and well wooded and pro- 

duces rye, wheat, barley, oats, hay, po- 
tatoes, and large quantities of fruit. By 
its constitution, revised in 1875, the state 
is governed by a senate composed of 14 
life members, and a council of 120 citi- 
zens. Lubeck is represented in the Reichs- 
tag by one delegate. 


Lubeck issued its first postage stamps 
on January 1st, 1859, at the same time as 
Hamburg, and the currency was also 
the same, viz., the Hamburg mark of 
16 schilling equal to about 28c in United 
States money. 

The first set consisted of five values 
all of similar design which were printed 
on watermarked paper. Two years 
later the ^sch and Isch were issued 
on unwatermarked paper and in 1863 an 
entirely new design was introduced. On 
April 1st, 1864, a l^sch stamp was is- 
sued and a reduction in one of the post- 
al rates in 1865 resulted in the issue of 
a l^sch stamp. In 1867 the color of 
the Isch value was slightly changed and 
this completed the separate postal exist- 
ence of Lubeck for, having joined the 
North German Confederation, the 
stamps of that Confederation were used 
on and after January 1st, 1868. 

The status of these stamps was similar 
to those of Hamburg, save that none 
of the values singly were able to frank 
a letter beyond the confines of Germany. 
In the "Why and Wherefore of Various 
Stamps," published in the Philatelic 
Record in 1906, Mr. R. R. Thiele gives 
some interesting and valuable informa- 
tion regarding the postal rates, etc., 
which we cannot do better than repro- 
duce in his own words : 

The first issue did not make its ap- 
pearance until 1859. At that time Lue- 
beck had three post offices : that of 
the city itself, one of Thurn and 
Taxis, and one of Denmark. The 
two latter had been using stamps for 
several years and the force of public 
opinion finally prevailed upon the 
postal authorities of the Free City to 
issue stamps also. The values of the 
first issue were selected for the rates 
most in use. The one-half schilling 
stamp representd the rate on city let- 
ters for local delivery, and also on lo- 
cal printed matter. The one schilling 
stamp was intended for the other city 
(there is only one, Travemuende) 


and villages within the territory of the 
Free City, as well as those post-offices 
in the neighbouring Duchy of Meck- 
lenburg-Schwerin which lay within 
three German miles of Luebeck. Two 
schillings was the rate to Hamburg 
and Bergedorf, hence the stamp of 
this value. To most of the post-offices 
within the two Duchies of Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Stre- 
litz the single letter rate was two and 
one-half schillings, and hence a stamp 
of this value was found necessary. 
Finally the four schilling stamp repre- 
sented the single rate on letters des- 
tined to points in the territory of the 
German-Austria postal union more 
than twenty German miles from Lue- 
beck (about ninety statute miles). 
The rate to certain offices in Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin was one and one-half 
schilling and that to other offices be- 
tween ten and twenty German miles 
distant was three schillings, but for 
some reason stamps of these values 
were not issued. 

In 1862 or 1863 the postal authori- 
ties received word from London that 
the stamps of Luebeck had been coun- 
terfeited there. This was, perhaps, 
not very difficult, considering their 
lithographic production. At all events 
the authorities decided to discontinue 
their lithographed stamps and to make 
use of steel engraving in the future. 
They, therefore, ordered the next set, 
that of 1863, from the Royal Prussian 
Printing Establishment at Berlin. It 
is related that the price of the die and 
plates nearly gave the Luebeckers a 
fit, but that the expense, to their great 
joy, was soon counter balanced by the 
orders of the stamp collectors of the 
time, who bought large numbers of 
the pretty labels. The values repre- 
sent the same rates as before. 

In 1864 the war with Denmark broke 
out and the Duchies of Schleswig and 
Holstein were occupied by the Feder- 
al troops. Correspondence for these 
two Duchies from Luebeck had for- 
merly been handled by the Danish 
office at Luebeck, but this office was 
now closed because of the war and the 
city post office took charge of all mail 
for the duchies. The Danish rate had 
been four skillings, equivalent to one 
and one-fourth schillings in Luebeck 
currency ; hence the department- is- 
sued a new stamp of the latter value. 
As it had to be provided in a hurry 
it was not engraved and printed in 
Berlin like the set then current, but 
was lithographed by Rahtgens at Lue- 
beck. In 1866 the rate was raised to 
one and one-half schilling and the one 

and one-fourth schilling stamp was 
then discontinued. 

As above mentioned the rate to 
Hamburg and Bergedorf was two 
schillings. In 1865 this rate was low- 
ered to one and one-half schillings 
and a stamp of this value was issued. 
It was again printed at Berlin, but it 
was not ready on the date when the 
reduced rate went into effect and the 
official notice, with charming simplicity, 
points out that the postage might, 
nevertheless, be made up by means of 
the one schilling and the half schill- 
ing stamps. 


Lubeck issued its first series of ad- 
hesive postage stamps on January 1st, 
1859, the values being ^, 1, 2, 2,y 2 and 
4 schilling. Their use was entirely op- 
tional but when used the public were 
requested to affix them to the left upper 
corner of the face of the letter and this 
continued to be the recognised mode of 
affixing the stamps until 1864. Official 
proof of this is found in the stamped 
envelopes those issued in 1863 shew 
the stamp in the upper left hand corner, 
while those issued in 1864 have the label 
in the right upper angle. 

The design is the same for all five 
values and shows the Arms of Lubeck 
on a field d'or (represented heraldically 
by a dotted ground) within three 
scrolls arranged in the form of an in- 
verted horseshoe. The lower of these 
scrolls contains the word "POST- 
MARKE," the one at left contains the 
value in words, and that on the right 
is inscribed with the word "SCHILL- 
ING." In a straight line at the top is 
"LUBECK" while in each of the 
angles the value is shown in white 
figures on a ground of solid color. The 
spaces between the corners are linked 
up by ornamental lines and the whole 
is enclosed within a single line rectangu- 
lar frame. 

Who was responsible for the design 
does not seem to be known but the 

stamps were manufactured by H. G. 
Rahtgens, a printer engaged in business 
in Lubeck. The method employed was 
lithography and minute differences in the 
designs for each value show that a 
special die or drawing was made for 
each. From the original design in each 
case one hundred transfers were taken 
and arranged on the lithographic stone 
in ten horizontal rows of ten. 

In making up the stone for the 2 
schilling two transfers of the 2J^sch 
were accidentally inserted in the bottom 
row. The mistake was discovered be- 
fore any of the stamps were printed and 
to remedy it the lithographer removed 
the numerals "2%" from each of the 
four corners of the offending labels and 
drew in the correct figures "2." He, 
however, omitted to alter the inscription 
showing the value in words so that 
these two stamps, printed in the cor- 
rect color for the 2sch and showing the 
correct value "2" in the corners are, 
nevertheless, wrongly inscribed 2^sch 
as shown by the lettering "ZWEI EIN 
HALB." The errors occurred on the 
sixth and seventh stamps of the lower 

As a safeguard against forgery the 
designer of these stamps introduced se- 
cret dots into his work. The center of 
the small ornament at the foot of the 
design consists of a short horizontal 
line on all the ^sch stamps a tiny dot 
appears above this line; on the Isch the 
dot is below the line; on the 2sch there 
are two dots below the line, one at each 
end; on the 2^sch there are two dots 
below and one above, in the center; 
while on the 4sch there are four 
dots below the line. In the case of 
the 2sch error the dots are as in the 
2^2sch. In addition to these dots there 
are numerous small peculiarities distinc- 
tive to each value. In an article, trans- 
lated in the Postage Stamp, M. Georges 
Brunei gives a lengthy list of these little 
marks but for all practical purposes 
the following tests, described in The 
Philatelist so long ago as 1871 are 
ample : 

J^sch. Eagle's right beak does not 
go against the wing. The bird does 
not touch the label in any place. 
There is no period after SCHILLING. 
The lines by which the figures are 
divided are very fine, and the figures 
themselves are small. 

Isch. Eagle very much like the one 
on the y 2 sch but the right hand end 
is more flattened and, consequently, 
shapeless. EIN is in letters of the 
same size as those used in the words 
following it. 

2sch. Eagle's left beak touches the 
wing, and the right one nearly so; 

there are no dots between the heads 
and wings. Over the U is a diaeresis 
of very small solid dots. 

2^sch. Eagle's left claw is at some 
little distance from the inscribed ri- 
band. No period after any of the 
words. All the fractional figures are 
very small, and the strokes dividing 
them very indistinct. The topmost of 
the three dashes under the upright 
stroke upon the left hand is merely a 

4sch. The third segment of the 
eagle's right wing touches the riband. 
There are either four or five dots (but 
only three are clearly formed) in the 
hollow between the beak and the 
wing, and those not together, but dis- 
persed. P of POSTMARKE almost 
touches the fold of the band. 
The paper upon which these stamps 
were printed was not specially requisi- 
tioned but was obtained from Matz, a 
stationer in the town, who had on hand 
a stock of thin fancy paper water- 
marked throughout with small flowers 
of myosotis. It was paper really in- 
tended to be made up into boxes of 
fancy note-paper. The stamps were is- 
sued imperforate and the sheets were 
gummed with yellowish gum according 
as they were required for use. M. 
Brunei states that the stamps were dis- 
tributed to the postmasters ungummed 
and these latter aflfixed the gum before 
selling them to the public. Such a pro- 
ceeding appears highly improbable for 
the postmasters would not be likely to 
have facilities at hand for gumming 
sheets of stamps. The statement has no 
foundation in fact but there seems little 
doubt that Rahtgens only gummed the 
sheets as they were required. Indeed, 
in an article in the Philatelic Record 
translated from the German we read 
"I learned from a member of the Raht- 
gens firm that they had not delivered 
all the stamps at one time, and gummed. 
On the contrary they were in the habit 
of remitting small quantities to the 
authorities, as the stamps became 
needed, and they only kept in stock a 
small number of sheets gummed in ad- 
vance." This accounts for the fact that 
the remainders of these stamps were 
all ungummed. 

Although the sheets were only 
gummed as required it would appear 
that the whole of the stamps originally 
ordered were printed at the same time 
the total supply printed being 

400 sheets = 40,000 stamps. 
Isch 200 sheets = 20,000 stamps. 
2sch 1366 sheets = 138,600 stamps. 
SJ^sch 500 sheets = 50,000 stamps. 
4sch 1499 sheets 149,900 stamps. 

As there were two errors in each of 
the sheets of the 2sch the total number 
of normal stamps was 135,820 while 
there were 2,772 errors. 

Variations in shade are not very 
prominent though the green of the 4sch 
differs a little. 

Reference List. 

1859. Wmk. Myosotis Flowers. Imperf. 

1. ^sch slate lilac, Scott's No. 1. 

2. Isch orange, Scott's No. 2. 
::. L'sch brown, Scott's No. 3. 

(a) Variety lettered ZWEI EIN HALB. 
4. 2'^sch rose, Scott's No. 4. 
ii. 4sch green, Scott's No. 5 or No. 5a-. 


The quantites printed of the */ 2 and 
Isch would appear to be ridiculously 
small but they lasted nearly two years. 
A further printing was made in 1861 
consisting of 1100 sheets (110,000 
stamps; of the ^sch and 499 sheets 
(49,900 stamps) of the Isch. As no 
more of the fancy paper watermarked 
with myosotis flowers was available or- 
dinary umvatermarked white wove 
paper was used. The same stones were 
used and with the exception of the 
paper the stamps are exactly like those 
of the preceding issue. These two va- 
rieties are said to have been issued in 
September, 1861. 

Reference List. 

1861. No wmk. Imperf. 

6. ^sch dull lilac, Scott's No. 6. 

7. Isch orange, Scott's No. 7. 

Both these starhps are very much 
rarer used than unused and about twice 
as rare with gum as without. 


In consequence, it is said, of the 
stamps being extensively counterfeited 
it was decided to issue a new series 
and the order for these was placed with 
the Royal Prussian Printing Establish- 
ment at Berlin. As it was determined 

of the series they replaced the design 
being alike for all five. In the center 
are the Arms of Lubeck on an upright 
oval of solid ground, around which is 
an engine-turned band inscribed "LUE- 
BECK" in its upper portion and 
"SCHILLING" at the base, while the 
numerals denoting the values are shown 
on uncolored discs at the sides. The 
stamps were embossed in color on plain 
white wove paper in sheets of 100 (10 
rows of 10) and, as in the case of most 
other embossed stamps produced at this 
establishment, the rows were numbered 
in the margins. The stamps were rou- 
letted 11^ in line. 

These new stamps were first placed 
on sale on July 1st, 1863, when the 
preceding set ceased to be issued, 
though their use was permitted until the 
end of the year as a convenience to the 
general public. The quantities printed 
were as follows : 

^sch 1,200 sheets = 120,000 stamps. 

Isch 800 sheets = 80,000 stamps. 

2sch 1,200 sheets = 120,000 stamps. 

2^sch 500 sheets = 50,000 stamps. 

4sch 800 sheets = 80,000 stamps. 

This parcel was dispatched from Ber- 
lin in June, 1863, and no more of the 2, 
2^, and 4sch were printed. A further 
supply of 240 sheets of the ^sch (24,000 
stamps) was printed in October, 1865, 
and a second supply of the 1 schilling, 
consisting of 200 sheets (20,000 stamps) 
was printed in May, 1867. This latter 
differs from the others in having a 
gauge of ten for the roulette. The color 
was also different from the Isch issued 
in 1863, the shade being orange instead 
of the previous orange-vermilion. 

Reference List. 
1863-67. Embossed. No wmk. Rouletted 11%. 

8. J^sch green, Scott's No. 8. 

9. Isch orange-vermilion, Scott's No. 9. 

10. Isch orange, Roul. 10, Scott's No. 9a. 

11. 2sch rose, Scott's No. 10. 

12. 2j4sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 11. 

13. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 12. 

to issue a series of envelopes as well as 
adhesives the same dies were utilised for 
both, and these were engraved by Schill- 
ing. The values are the same as those 


Until 1864 Denmark had maintained 
a post-office in Lubeck but when, owing 
to the war, the duchies of Schleswig, 
Holstein, and Lauenberg were detached 
from Denmark this office was aban- 
doned. Mail for the duchies was then 
handled by the city Post the rate on 
single letters being fixed at IJ^sch. As 
there was no stamp of that value or a 
^sch by means of which the rate might 
be made up in conjunction with a Isch 
stamp had to be issued and as 


the demand for this- was somewhat ur- 
gent it was decided to produce it locally 
by lithography rather than wait for a 
supply from Berlin. H. G. Rahtgens, 
who produced the first series, was en- 
trusted with the manufacture of this 
l^sch label. The design is a palpable 
copy of the embossed stamps and shows 
the Arms of Lubeck on a dotted ground 
within an upright oval band inscribed in 
a similar manner to the stamps of the 
1863 series. The stamps were litho- 
graphed in sheets of 100 and there were 
two printings. The first of .these took 
place in March, 1864, when 525 sheets 
(52,500 stamps) were printed and the 
second was made in November of the 
same year when 517 sheets, or 51,700 
stamps were prepared. They were is- 
sued imperforate and a number of dif- 
ferent shades may be found. 

Reference List. 

1864. No wmk. Imperf. 
1(4. I'^sch brown, Scott's No. 14. 


On October 1st, 1865, the postage be- 
tween Lubeck and Travemund on the 
one side, and Hamburg, Bergedorf and 
Geestacht on the other was reduced to 
\ l /2 schilling, and a stamp to provide for 
the new rate was ordered from Berlin 
together with an envelope of similar 
value. The first supply of 202 sheets 
(20,200 stamps) was sent in November, 
1865. and a second supply of 200 sheets 
(20,000 stamps) was despatched in May, 
1867, these being printed in a brighter 
tint. The design is similar to that of 
1863 except that the inscribed band is 
octagonal instead of oval while the rec- 
tangular form is obtained by the filling 
of the angles with engine-turning. 
These were rouletted 11^ in line like 
the emission of 1863. 

This was the last special stamp issued 
by the Lubeck administration (though 
there was a later printing of the Isch 
as we have already shown) before its 
absorption by the North German Con- 
federation on January 1st, 1868. 

Reference List. 

1867. Embossed. No wmk. Roul. 11 J A. 
15. IJ^sch mauve, Scott's No 13. 


At the time the Lubeck Post-office 
went out of business as a distinctive 
stamp issuing establishment quite a con- 
siderable number of stamps remained on 
hand and these were sold in December, 
1868, to M. Ch. Pelletreau, of Paris, for 
about $450.00. The lot comprised the 
following : 

1859. y 2 sch 72,500 stamps. 
Isch 29,500 stamps, 
2sch 79,500 stamps. 
26,500 stamps. 
4sch 107,500 stamps. 

1863. l / 2 sch 23,968 stamps. 

Isch 7,228 stamps. 
2sch 50,828 stamps. 
28,951 stamps. 
4sch 17,851 stamps. 

1864. l*4sch 30,652 stamps. 

1865. l^sch 97,071 stamps. 

Those of the first issue were all with- 
out gum and the two lowest values were 
the varieties on unwatermarked paper. 
Of the 2sch, 1590 were the errors in- 
scribed "Zwei ein HALB." 


In 1871 Herr Kirchner, a soldier who 
had been wounded in the Franco-Ger- 
man war, obtained the permission of 
the authorities to make reprints of all 
the stamps of Lubeck excepting the 
lJ4sch of 1864 for which, apparently, 
no die had been made, or; if made, had 
been lost. These reprints were made 
for Herr Kirchner by H. G. Rahtgens 
who charged the modest sum of $7.50 
for the work. Of the 1859 issue 250 
of each value were reprinted with an 
additional 250 of the Isch on thick 
paper. As the original stones were not 
available new ones had to be made and 

these were small ones of 25 impressions 
in five rows of five. These varieties 
are, therefore, not true reprints but imi- 
tations made with official sanction. The 
paper is thin (with the exception of the 
extra lot of Isch already referred to) 
and unwatermarked, the gum smooth 
and evenly applied, instead of thick and 
yellowish as in the originals, and the 
colors are also different. As these re- 
prints are far rarer than the original 

stamps they are not likely to worry the 
average collector. 

At the same time reprints of the 1863 
issue were made and also of the l^sch 
of 1865. There were only 250 of these 
likewise, but as they were neither em- 
bossed nor rouletted, and printed in 
colors widely differing from the origi- 
nals their identification should be a 
simple matter. These are, of course, as 
rare as the reprints of the 1859 set. 


Mecklenburg-Schwerin is a grand- 
duchy of the German Empire lying 
south of the Baltic Sea. The surface is 
generally flat but diversified by the 
Baltic ridge of the North German plain. 
Its area, including that of its sister 
duchy, Mecklenburg- Strelitz, is 6,266 
square miles and the combined popula- 
tion of both is not far in excess of 800,- 
000. Agriculture, the most important 
industry in the duchy, has reached a 
high state of development. Sugar and 
starch factories, breweries and distil- 
leries, and the making of machinery and 
bricks are the other industries of mo- 
ment. Salt and gypsium are extracted. 
The capitol of Mecklenburg-Schwerin is 
Schwerin. The town of next importance 
is Rostock at which a well-known uni- 
versity is established. The population 
of the towns and land-owning classes 
are of lower Saxon descent, while the 
rural population are mostly of Slav de- 
scent. The current language is Platt- 
Deutsch or Low German. The duchy 
dates from 1710, while the title of grand 
duke dates from 1815. During the time 
its postage stamps were in use the reign- 
ing Grand Duke was Frederick Francis 
II. Alecklenburg-Schwerin has two 
votes in the Imperial Federal Council 
and sends six members to the Imperial 


The grand-duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin did not issue its first postage 
stamps until July 1st, 1856, though it ap- 
pears to have joined the German-Aus- 
trian Postal Union some years previous- 
ly and to have been desirous of issuing 
stamps. Its currency, however, seems 
to have been a stumbling block for be- 
ing in thalers and schillinge some diffi- 
culty was experienced in arriving at 
equivalents acceptable to the other mem- 

bers of the Union. The thaler, equal to 
about ?2c in United States currency, was 
divided into 48 schillinge, while the 
thaler of the Postal Union (also worth 
about 72c) was equal to 30 North Ger- 
man silber-groschen. After some dis- 
cussion it was agreed that 1 silbergro- 
schen should be represented by 1^4 
schillinge, 2 silbergroschen by 3^4 schit- 
linge, and 3 silbergroschen by 5 schil- 

The letter rates within the boundaries 
of the duchy were 1 schilling up to three 
German miles, 1 schilling 6 pfennige (or 
\ l / 2 schilling) from three to six miles, 
and 3 schillinge for distances over six 
miles. The rate on printed matter 
weighing under 1 loth was l / 2 schilling, 
regardless of distance, and for heavier 
packages the rate was one-fourth that 
charged for letters. The rates for let- 
ters sent to other countries within the 
Postal Union were 1 schilling for dis- 
tances up to 10 miles, 3*4 schilling for 
distances of 10 to 20 miles, and 5 schil- 
ling for distances over 20 miles. These 
rates would have necessitated quite a 
number of different denominations but 
the difficulty was surmounted by the in- 
genious expedient of issuing a divisible 
1 schilling stamp (so constructed that it 
could be cut up into four parts of Y 
schilling each) and 3 and 5 schillinge 
values. In 1864 the 4/4 schilling stamp 
was issued rouletted and almost immedi- 
ately after it was changed somewhat in 
design. At the same time the color of 
the 5sch was changed from blue to 
bistre. In September, 1865, the 3sch ap- 
peared rouletted. 

In 1863 the postal rates were revised 
as regards inland letters the new sched- 
ule being 1 schilling for distances up to 
five miles, 2 schilling from five to ten 
miles, and 3 schilling above ten miles. 
For printed matter distance was disre- 
garded and the rates were fixed by 
weight at y 2 schilling up to 1 loth, 1 
schilling from 1 to 4 loth, and 2 schilling 
from 4 loth to eight ounces. It will' 

thus be seen that there was considerable 
necessity for a 2 schilling stamp but a 
label of this value was not issued until 
October, 1866. In the following year it 
underwent a change of color and on 
January 1st, 1868, the separate series of 
stamps for Mecklenburg- Schwerin was 
dispensed with on the formation of the 
North German Confederation. 


The first stamps, as we have already 
stated, were issued on July 1st, 1856. 
They were printed at the Prussian State 
Printing Office, in Berlin, on white wove 
paper and were issued imperforate. The 
design of the 1 schilling consisted of 
four small stamps of Y\ schilling each 
in two rows of two, the combined four 
being about 21 mm. square. The design 
on each of these four quarters shows a 
bull's head (or that of a buffalo accord- 
ing to some writers) the Arms of Meck- 
lenburg, on a dotted ground, heraldically 
representing a field d'or. This was en- 
closed by a square frame inscribed 
"SCHILLING" at the base and "MECK- 
on the other three sides, the numerals 
of value being in the angles. The 3 and 
5 schillinge are alike in design and 
show a bull's head on a dotted ground 
within a shield, surmounted by a grand 
ducal coronet on an uncolored ground. 
Around this centerpiece is a square 
frame being inscriptions similar to those 
on the lowest denomination except that 
the word at base is "SCHILLINGE." 
The numerals in the angles are, of 
course, "3" and "5" respectively. 

The sheets consisted of 120 stamps 
arranged in twelve rows of ten. Ac- 
cording to the late Mr. W. A. S. Westo- 
by "the 480 electrotypes for the J4 schil- 
ling were arranged in groups of four in 
two rows of two, 1}4 mm. distance from 
each other, and 1^4 mm. between each 
group." Other writers state that the 
small electrotypes were placed an equal 
distance apart horizontally and vertical- 
ly so that each was virtually a separate 
54 schilling stamp. The electrotypes for 
the 3 and 5 schillinge values were spaced 
about 2 mm. apart. The rows were 
numbered in the margins at each side 
from 1 to 12 respectively. Three de- 
liveries of these stamps were made by 
the Prussian State Printing Office viz. : 
Date. Sheets. Value. Stamps 

June 9, 1856. 6,300 4/4sch 756,000 

June 9, 1856. 1,800 3sch 216,000 

June 9, 1856. 600 5sch 72,000 

Nov. 26, 1856. 200 3sch 24,000 

Dec. 16, 1856. 1,650 3sch 198,000 

It will be noted that the total supply 
of the 5sch consisted of only 72,000 
stamps so that it is rather surprising its 
catalogue value is not higher. The only 
denomination that varies in shade is the 
2sch which is found in yellow and 


Reference List. 

1856. Typographed. Imperf. 

1. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 1. 

2. 3sch yellow, Scott's No. 2 or No. 2a. 

3. osch blue, Scott's No. 3. 


On June 12th, 1864, a supply of 500 
sheets (60,000 stamps) of the 4/4sch 
stamp was ordered from Berlin and de- 
livered early in July. The printers took 
it upon themselves to roulette the stamps 
in this supply and as the innovation was 
approved by the Mecklenburg authorities 
all further supplies of stamps were is- 
sued with roulette separation. This 
rouletting necessitated a new arrange- 
ment of the little electrotypes. The 
groups of four were arranged with a 
space of 3mm. between them, which al- 
lowed of a rouletting in line between 
each group. The paper on which this 
supply of stamps was printed was of a 
different texture from that used in 1856, 
having a smoother surface and being 
softer with a more pronounced mesh. 
Notwithstanding the fact that there were 
nearly as many of these stamps printed 
as of the 5sch blue this is the rarest of 
all Mecklenburg stamps as a glance at 
the catalogue will show. 

Reference List. 

July, 1864. Typographed. Rouletted 
4. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 4. 


A notice issued by the Post Office un- 
der date September 30th, 1864, informed 
the public that as soon as the stock of 
5sch blue was exhausted a new issue 
would be made printed in brown, and 
that the dotted ground in the 4/4 schil- 
ling stamps had been suppressed. The 
actual date of issue of these two new 
varieties does not seem to be known for, 
though the official circular referred to 
above is dated Sept. 30th, a delivery of 
the osch bistre was made on July 15th, 
1864, while the first lot of the 4/4sch was 
delivered on August 10th. These stamps 
were printed in sheets of 100 in ten 
rows of ten instead of 120 as formerly. 
The dates and quantities of the different 
supplies were as follows : 

Date. Sheets. Value. Stamps 

July 15, 1864. 100 5sch 10,000 

Aug. 10, 1864. 4,000 4/4sch 400,000 
March 20, 1865. 150 5sch 15,000 
Oct. 20, 1865. 150 5sch 15,000 

Jan. 9, 1866. 5,000 4/4sch 500,000 

Jan. 26, 1867. 60 5sch 6,000 

Feb. 23, 1867. 2,000 4/4sch 200,000 
June 11, 1867. 100 5sch 10,000 

Aug. 24, 1867. 1,200 4/4sch 120,000 

It will thus be seen that altogether 
1.. "jo, ooo 4/4sch stamps were printed and 
56,000 of the 5sch. 

The 5sch is known on a distinctly 
thick paper and as this is little rarer than 
the normal variety it would seem that 
more than one of the supplies mentioned 
above were on this paper. Both values 
may be found in quite a number of 
shades. The specialist can sub-divide 
the ordinary paper into two varieties 
one having a close texture like that used 
in 1856 and the other having a coarse 
web like that used for the issue of the 
rouletted 4/4sch original type, made in 

Reference List. 

1864. Typographed. Rouletted 11%. 
.">. 4/4sch red, Scott's No. 5. 
*;. Hsch bistre, Scott's No. 6 or No. 6a. 


In September, 1865, the 3 schillinge ap- 
peared rouletted ll 1 /? like the other 
values. The original plate of 1856 was 
used so that the stamps have smaller 
margins than those of the 5sch of the 
last issue which were printed in sheets 
of 100. A supply consisting of 800 
sheets, or 96,000 stamps was delivered 
on August 16th. There was little room 
for the roulette lines, the size of the 

completed stamps being 23mm. square. 
When a new supply was required in 1867 
the plate was reconstructed so that it 
contained 100 stamps like that of the 
4/4sch and 5sch. These were so spaced 
that the stamps now measure a trifle 
more than 24 mm. square. Two print- 
ings, each of 20,000 stamps, were made 
and these were delivered on July llth 
and August 24th, 1867, respectively. 

Reference List. 

1865. Typographed. Rouletted 11%. 

7. 3sch yellow, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a. 


Although, as we have shown in our 
introductory notes, there was consider- 
able need for a 2 schillinge stamp the 
first supply of this value was not issued 
until October, 1866. In design it is simi- 
lar to the 3sch and 5sch but with, of 
course, the numerals "2" in the angles. 
The plate consisted of the 100 electro- 
types then usual and the first supply con- 
sisted of 500 sheets, or 50,000 stamps. 
These were printed in purple and the 
supply lasted until September, 1867, 
when another batch of 200 sheets (20,000 
stamps) was ready for issue. This sec- 
ond lot provides two shades grey-lilac 
and bluish lilac. One of the electrotypes 
was slightly damaged, the ball of the "2" 
in the upper right hand corner being 
knocked off providing a minor variety. 

Reference List. 

1866-67. Typographed. Rouletted 11%. 
8. 2sch lilac, Scott's No. 7 or 7a. 


Mecklenburg-Schwerin having joined 
the North German Confederation its 
special stamps were superseded on Janu- 
ary 1st, 1868, by the general issue for the 
Confederation. Late in the same year 
or early in 1869 the remainders were 
purchased from the Post Office by Mr. 
G. Schnelle, of Schwerin. These con- 
sisted of the following: 
2sch lilac, 15,000 stamps 

3sch yellow, 18,800 stamps 

5sch bistre, 3,000 stamps 

4/4sch red, '36,500 stamps 

Isch red, 
2sch lilac, 
3sch yellow, 
5sch bistre, 






The price paid for the lot was $75.00 
and the purchaser offered them whole- 
sale at the following rates : 

Isch (4/4) red, $2.40 per 100. 

2sch lilac, $2.40 per 100. 

3sch yellow, $2.40 per 100. 

From another list of the same period 
we take the following retail prices which 
are interesting compared with those now 
obtaining : 

1856, 4/4sch red, imperf., unused 12c. 
3856, 4/4sch red, imperf., used 4c. 
1856, 4/4sch red, rouletted, unused 50c. 
1856, 4/4sch red, rouletted, used 50c. 
1856, 3sch yellow, imperf. 2c. 
1856, 5sch blue, used, 12c. 
1864, 4/4sch red, 2c. 
1864, 5sch brown, 6c. 
There are no reprints of any of the 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin stamps. 


The grand-duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz adjoins that of Mecklenburg 
Schwerin. Its industries, people, and 
geographical formation are similar to 
that of its sister duchy, while its capital 
is Neu-Strelitz. It has but one vote in 
the Imperial Federal Council and sends 
only one member to the Imperial Diet. 
The existing duchy dates from 1701, 
the title of grand-duke being acquired 
in 1815. At the time its postage stamps 
were issued its ruler was the Grand 
Duke Frederick William, then a child 
four years of age. 

the confines of the duchy was charged 
at the rate of % silbergroschen per loth, 
while for other places within the Ger- 
man-Austrian Postal Union the rate 
was Yz silbergroschen. The computa- 
tion of the postal charges must have 
been difficult at times for some of the 
rates were expressed in schillinge and 
some in silbergroschen and, as we have 
shown in the case of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, the two currencies were 
somewhat difficult to reconcile. The 
stamps had but a short life for on Jan- 
uary 1st, 1868, they were superseded by 
the general issue for the North German 


Until October, 1864, the postal affairs 
of the tiny Grand-duchy of Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz were managed by the 
Thurn and Taxis administration. It 
then, if somewhat tardy in making up 
its mind to do so, decided to issue 
stamps of its own and the order for these 
was given to the Prussian State Print- 
ing Office at Berlin. The currency was a 
mixed one, as both that of the thaler 
of its sister grand-duchy divided into 
48 schillinge was in use, and that in 
which it was divided into 30 silber- 
groschen. A series of six different 
stamps was issued five of these having 
the values denoted in silbergroschen 
while the other had its value expressed 
as 1 schilling. The latter was intended 
for local letters only while the other 
denominations took the place of the 
similar values which had been used 
under the Thurn and Taxis adminis- 

The rates of postage on single letters 
were as follows: Up to 10 miles, 1 
silbergroschen ; From 10 to 20 miles, 2 
silbergroschen ; Over 20 miles, 3 silber- 
groschen. Local, or "drop", letters were 
1 schilling, the registration fee was 2 
schilling, and special delivery cost 3 
silbergroschen. Printed matter within 


The stamps were first issued on Octo- 
ber 1st, 1864, and of the six values com- 
prised in the set three were of one de- 
sign and three of another. The central 
design on the Y sgr, Ys sgr and 1 schil- 
ling consists of a rectangle of solid 
color on which the Arms of Mecklen- 
burg, a bull's head on a shield sur- 
mounted by a grand-ducal coronet, are 
embossed in white. On the frame the 
inscriptions are shown in colored let- 
ters on an engine turned ground, while 
in each of the four corners the numer- 
als of value are shown in white on 
square blocks of solid color. The in- 
scriptions are "MECKLENB." on the 
left, "STRELITZ" on- the right, "EIN 
the top for the J^sgr and Hsgr respec- 
tively, and "SILB. GR." at the bottom 
for these two values. On the 1 schilling 
the top frame shows "EIN" and the 
bottom one "SCHILLING". On the 
other three values the centre is similar 
but is on a solid oval ground. The 
frame around this is octagonal in shape 
with inscriptions on an engine turned 
ground. These are "MECKLENB. 
STRELITZ" at the top and the value in 


words at the bottom. In the centre, at 
each side, numerals of value are shown 
on small uncolored ovals. 

The stamps were all embossed in color 
on plain white wove unwatermarkcd 
paper at the Prussian State Printing 
Office. They were printed in sheets of 
100, ten rows of ten, with the side mar- 
gins numbered 1 to 10 corresponding 
with the horizontal rows. All were 
rouletted ll l / 2 . 

How many were printed or how many 
different printings took place we have 
been unable to discover but the totals 
were roughly as follows : 

%sgr and ^sgr about 60,000 of each. 

1 schilling at least 20,000. 

Isgr and 3 sgr about 100,000 of each. 

2sgr about 50,000. 

All values except the 1 schilling and 
3sgr exist in fairly pronounced shades. 
Of the l /4 silbergroschen 100 sheets 
(10,000 stamps) were printed in orange- 

yellow. This was the first supply and 
those printed subsequently were in 

Reference List. 

Oct. 1st, 1864. Embossed. Rouletted 11^. 

1. J^sgr orange, Scott's No. 1 or No. la. 

2. V$sgr green, Scott's No. 2. 
.",. Isch violet, Scott's No. 3. 

4. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 4. 

5. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 5. 

6. 3sgr bistre, Scott's No. 6. 


The grand-duchy having joined the 
North German Confederation, a notice 
dated December 17th, 1867, announced 
that on and after January 1st, 1868, the 
stamps of the Confederation would be 
substituted for those of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz. The remainders were sold in 
1868 to a merchant in Neu-Strelitz but 
no details appear to have been published 
regarding the numbers in the lot or the 
price paid for them. All the stamps 
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are consider- 
ably rarer used than unused and speci- 
mens with forged cancellations are, 
therefore, by no means uncommon. 

None of the stamps of this grand- 
duchy have ever been reprinted. 


Oldenburg is a sovereign grand-duchy 
of the German Empire consisting of 
three divisions. The first and largest of 
these is the grand-duchy proper which 
adjoins the North Sea and has an area 
of 2,075 square miles. The second part 
consists of the principality of Lubeck, 
which is situated north of the state of the 
same name, with an area of 210 square 
miles. The third and smallest portion is 
known as the principality of Birkenfeld. 
This is situated on the River Saar in the 
south of the Rhine Provinces and has an 
area of 194 square miles. The total pop- 
ulation of the three portions is a little 
over 400,000. The grand-duchy proper 
consists of marsh and geest (high heath 
and moor) land. The breeding of horses, 
cattle, and sheep and the keeping of bees, 
are considerable industries. Brickmak- 
ing, cork and turf cutting, brewing and 
distilling, and tobacco manufacture are 
also carried on. Lubeck possesses more 
pleasing features than the grand-duchy 
and is blessed with fruitful soil. Birken- 
feld is covered with forests to the extent 
of 40% of its surface. Here the cutting 

of gems (agates) and manufacture of 
imitation jewelery are thriving industries. 
The grand-duchy has one vote in the Im- 
perial Federal Council and sends three 
representatives to the Imperial Diet. Its 
capital, having a population of about 30,- 
000, bears the same name and is chiefly 
famous for its grand-ducal palace. 

The house of Oldenburg is one of con- 
siderable antiquity and traces its descent 
direct from the famous Saxon leader, 
Witikind, who successfully resisted the 
doughty Charlemagne more than eleven 
hundred years ago. Though Witikind 
eventually submitted it was on highly 
favorable terms and he took the title of 
Duke of Saxony. Two of his descend- 
ants became the heroes of the nursery 
tales of Germany. One was Count Otto, 
to whom a fairy is said to have presented 
the silver-gilt horn still exhibted in the 
museum of Copenhagen, and known as 
the "Horn of Oldenburg." It is this horn 
which figures on the stamps of Denmark. 
Hanover, etc. 

Count Frederic, another off-shoot, 
bravely proved the innocence of a 


maligned father by undergoing the ordeal 
of single combat with a fierce lion, which 
he slew in the presence of the assembled 
diet of Gostar, presided over by the 
Emperor, Henry IV. From this young 
hero's heirs springs the ducal house of 
Oldenburg and his prowess is fittingly 
commemorated by the inclusion of a lion 
rampant on the ducal coat-of-anns. 
Christian, the Warlike, his great-grand- 
son, built a castle near the ancient city of 
Oldenburg in 1180 and -thereafter took 
for his title Count of Oldenburg. In 
1570, Anthony, the reigning Count, willed 
a transfer of his dominions to the king 
of Denmark and the Dukes of Schleswig- 
Holstein, in the case of the extinction of 
his male posterity. 

In 1667 the country actually fell into 
the possession of Denmark, then repre- 
sented by the house of Holstein Gottorp, 
the elder branch of the Oldenburg family. 
On the accession of that branch to the 
Russian throne Denmark received Old- 
enburg in exchange for the Schleswig- 
Holstein family possessions. The grand- 
duke Paul of Russia, in whom the Old- 
enburg states were invested, solemnly 
assigned them, according to convention, 
to his cousin Frederic Augustus, repre- 
sentative of the younger branch of Got- 
torp and at that time bishop of Lubeck. 
The emperor of Germany confirmed this 
settlement (1777), and raised the terri- 
tory to the rank of a duchy. In 1803 the 
bishopric of Lubeck was added to the 
duchy and, after the fall of Napoleon in 
1815, the principality of Birkenfeld was 
amalgamated therewith. In 1829 the .ter- 
ritory was made a grand-duchy. 


The postal service of Oldenburg was 
originally in the hands of the Counts of 
Thurn and Taxis, but when it was an- 
nexed to the French crown in 1811 that 
service was put an end to. When the 
duchy was restored by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815, after the fall of Napo- 
leon, it provided a postal administration 
of its own. In 1851 it joined the Ger- 
man-Austrian Postal Union and, as one 
of the rules of the Union required the 
adoption of postage stamps by the con- 
tracting states, Oldenburg immediately 
made preparation for the issue of suit- 
able labels. The postal rates required 
three values 1, 2, and 3 silbergroschen 
respectively, and these were somewhat 
difficult to express owing to the fact that 
the currency, like that of Bremen, con- 
sisted of a thaler of 72 grote, each of 

which was divided into 5 schwaren. In 
the other countries belonging to this 
Postal Union the thaler was divided into 
30 silbergroschen. It was decided to ex- 
press the values in fractions of a thaler, 
1 silbergroschen (1/30 thaler) being 
equal to 2 2/5 grote; 2 silbergroschen 
(1/15 thaler) being equal to 4 4/5 grote; 
and 3 silbergroschen (1/10 thaler) be- 
ing equal to 7 1/5 grote. These three 
stamps were first placed on sale on Janu- 
ary 5th, 1852. The 1 silbergroschen 
stamp was for letters weighing up to 1 
loth (ounce) sent not more than 10 Ger- 
man miles within the confines of the 
grand-duchy; the 2 silbergroschen was 
for letters sent more than 10 miles ; and 
the 3 silbergroschen value was for heavi- 
er letters and also for those sent to 
points outside Oldenburg. The 1 silber- 
groschen was also used for the registra- 
tion fee and, from 1858, represented the 
single letter rate to any place within the 

In 1855 a new value, 1/3 silbergroschen 
or 4 schwaren, was issued for use on 
packages of printed matter up to one 
ounce in weight. 

In 1857 the coinage was altered to con- 
form with that of the other members of 
the Postal Union, the thaler now being 
divided into 30 groschen of 12 schwaren 
each. A new set of four values appeared 
in 1859 showing values in groschen. The 
next change took place in 1861 when it 
was decided to dispense with colored 
papers and have colored impressions on 
white paper. At the same time two new 
values were added to the set a J / 2 gr for 
the reduced local or "drop" letter rate, 
and Vtgr to assist in making up the frac- 
tional rates on letters to foreign coun- 
tries. This value was dropped in Feb- 
ruary of the following year as its use 
was rather restricted and where the frac- 
tional rates necessitated it the next high- 
er value, l / 2 gr had to be used. The adop- 
tion of uniform colors for equivalent 
values among the various members of 
the Union necessitated another issue in 
1862 and this remained in use until Jan- 
uary 1st, 1868, when Oldenburg joined 
the North German Confederation. 

In 1853 Prussia acquired about a quar- 
ter of a square mile of the territory of 
Oldenburg at the mouth of the river 
Jade for a naval port, now called Wil- 
helmshafen, for a consideration of $375,- 
000, but it was stipulated that Prussian 
stamps should only be used on letters 
forwarded by sea. Prussian official cor- 
respondence was forwarded free but all 
other mail matter passing over the post- 
al routes of the grand-duchy had to be 
franked with Oldenburg stamps. It is im- 
portant to remember that the Oldenburg 

stamps were only used in the grand- 
duchy proper and not in the principalities 
of Lubeck and Birkenfeld. 

By an agreement, dated August 17th, 
1845, and by a Customs Convention dated 
January 16th, 1864, the postal service of 
Lubeck was transferred to Denmark, 
which then possessed sovereign powers 
in the neighbouring Duchy of Holstein. 
The postal revenue went to Denmark and 
Danish stamps were used there until 
1864. Then the stamps of Schleswig- 
Holstein were used, and from 1866 those 
of Prussia. 

Prussia also had charge of the postal 
administration of Birkenfeld, by the 
terms of a convention dated April 4th, 
1837. Prussian stamps were used and 
Oldenburg received the sum of $450 an- 
nually as compensation for the loss of 
postal revenue. 


On December 5th, 1851, Oldenburg 
joined the German- Austrian Postal Un- 
ion and, as one of the rules of the Union 
stipulated that postage stamps should be 
introduced as "quickly as possible," the 
Government at once made arrangements 
for the issue of suitable stamps. The old 
established firm of lithographic printers, 
Gerhard Stalling of Oldenburg, were ap- 
proached and they submitted a drawing 
for the proposed stamps together with 
an estimate for the cost of production. 
The drawing met with the approval of 
the Government and it was returned to 
Stalling with an order to manufacture 
the stamps. This order was notified to 
the Postal Administration by the Govern- 
ment on December 29th, 1851, and on the 
day previous to this an official decree was 
published for a translation of which I am 
indebted to Mr. G. B. Duerst's article 
in the Mnnthlv Journal for December, 
1000, viz.: 
Xo. 113. 

OLDENBURG, December 28, 1851. 
On account of the introduction of 
postage stamps, and in consequence of 
the notice of the 16th inst. referring to 
the German-Austrian Postal Conven- 
tion, the following is herewith pub- 
lished : 

Art. i. The value is stated on the 
postage stamps, on a shield underneath 
the coat of arms of Oldenburg-Del- 
menhorst, surmounted by a crown, in 
fractions of a thaler, and on a scroll on 
the right-hand side of the shield in 
silbergroschen, and on the left-hand 
side in grote. Underneath the shield 

is the word "Oldenburg." also in a 

The stamps of 1/30 thaler=2 2/5gr 
Isgr are blue. 

The stamps of 1/15 thaler=4 4/5gr 
=2sgr are red. 

The stamps of 1/10 thaler=7 l/5gr 
3sgr are yellow. 

Art. 2. Only letters can be franked 
with postage stamps; letters with de- 
clared value, packets to be paid for on 
delivery, samples and wrappers (news- 
papers?) are excepted. 

Art. 3. The correct amount for the 
prepayment of the postage according 
to the tabulated tariffs must be affixed 
in postage stamps on the address side 
of the letter in the upper left-hand cor- 
ner; this can be done by moistening 
the adhesive matter which is found on 
the back of the stamps, and pressing 
them on the letters. If the stamps 
have dropped off the letters are con- 
sidered as not franked. 

Art. 4. On letters which have not 
been franked sufficiently by the senders 
the underpaid amount will be marked 
and collected from the addressee. If 
the sender has affixed more stamps 
than required by the tariff he will have 
to bear the loss. 

Art. 5. Letters franked with stamps 
can be posted like unfranked letters 
in letter boxes ; registered letters must 
be handed in over the counter. 

Art. 6. Refers to imitators and 
forgers of postage stamps. 

Art. 7. Postage stamps can be 
bought at all post offices from the 5th 
of January, 1852. 



At the same time as the foregoing doc- 
ument was distributed a "letfter of instruc- 
tions" was sent to the various postmas- 
ters and for the translation of the fol- 
lowing interesting items I am again in- 
debted to Mr. Duerst. 

If sufficient postage has not been 
affixed in stamps, the despatching post 
office must mark the deficiency on the 
address side of the letter and debit the 
receiving office, which must collect the 
amount from the addressee. 

All letters must be postmarked with 
name dies as before. If a stamp be 
recognized as forged, the letter must 
be sent to the head office. Each stamp 
must be cancelled separately. The 
number of the cancellation die must be 
completely imprinted on the stamp it- 
self. Each office has a die, consisting 
of four concentric circles, containing a 
number in the centre. Each office will 
receive a different number as per the 
enclosed list. 

The despatching office will be lined 
five times the amount of any not suffi- 
ciently obliterated stamp. 
The "dies" referred to above are the 
cancellation stamps. 

The same design served for all three 
values and this has a strong resemblance 
to that adopted for the first issue of 
Hanover. Writing in the Stamp Collec- 
tor's Magazine in 1874 with regard to 
these stamps Mr. Overy Taylor said, 
"The early issues of Oldenburg are re- 
markable for their neatness and finish. 
They have the same kind of artistic 
primness as their Hanoverian contem- 
poraries. There is the same combina- 
tion, at any rate in the first series, of 
the useful numeral of value with the 
decorative coat of arms ; and there is 
the same peculiarity noticeable in them 
as in many of the other old German 
stamps they are rigidly rectangular. 
Whatever vagaries of ornamentation 
may be allowed in the centre of the 
German stamps of the ante-Prussian 
days, their exterior border is always 
composed of a neatly ruled double-lined 
rectangle. Other stamps might take 
oval, octagonal, hexagonal, or sinuous 
edged frames, the German engravers 
stuck fast to their four-sided ideal; and 
it must be admitted that their produc- 
tions are not lacking in a certain grave 
and well-balanced appropriateness. The 
first Oldenburg type is an example in 
point. The arms are very carefully 
and clearly drawn, though on a small 
scale ; the shield, containing the value 
is fancifully designed ; and the scroll, 
which frames it on three sides, falls in 
graceful folds; whilst the subordinate 
foliate ornaments and shading relieve 
and harmonise with the prominent fea- 

It should be noted that the arms on 
the mantle and coronet above are the 
ducal and not the grand-ducal ones. 

The design for each value was en- 
graved separately so that there are many 
differences apart from those of the facial 
values. The engravings were made on 
stone and from these transfers were 
taken on specially prepared paper and 
laid down on the printing stone in ten 
rows of ten. An exact description of 
the process followed is given in a letter 
dated January 24th, 1859, which was 
sent by the Oldenburg postoffice to the 
Postal Administration of Luxemburg in 
reply to the latter's enquiry as to the 
method and cost of manufacturing post- 
age stamps. Mr. Duerst translates the 
important part -of this letter as follows : 
One drawing of the stamp is made 
with a diamond point and a steel 
needle on a hard, well-polished, blue 

lithographed stone, and as many copies 
are taken on prepared Chinese paper 
as there are to be stamps on the plate 
(in this case 100). These are then 
fixed in straight lines on paper, (in 
this instance in ten rows of ten), and 
transferred in this form to another 
stone. After these transfers have 
been retouched the plate is ready for 

There are three generally recognized 
varieties of type of the 1/30 and 1/15 
thaler values and though Scott's cata- 
logue does not differentiate between 
them it is as well to know how to 
identify them as some are rarer than 

The three varieties of the 1/30 thaler 
may be distinguished as follows : 

Type I. The ornament in the lower 
part of the shield joins the left stroke 
of the H of THALER. 

Type II. The ornament does not 
touch the H but is 1 mm. distant from 
that letter. 

Type III. The ornament is rounded 
and still farther away from the letter H. 
The accompanying illustrations should 
clearly demonstrate the differences. 
Types I and III are about equal in value 
while type II is three times as rare as 
the others. 

The distinguishing marks of the three 

types of the 1/15 thaler are as.follows: 

Type I. The letter H of THALER is 

well above the indentation of the shield. 

Type II. The letter H almost touches 

the indentation of the shield. 

Type III. This is similar to type IT 
but the bottom portion of the mantle 
(below the arms) is fully shaded. 

In this value type I is a little com- 
moner than the other two. Of these 
three varieties of each value the late 
Mr. W. A. S. Westoby stated that the 
first two in each case represented diff- 
erent drawings on the matrix stone and 
that the third "may be only a retouch." 
Capt. P. Ohrt, whose writings formed 
the ground for Mr. Duerst's translation, 
states positively that there were only 
two separate drawings of each, the sec- 
ond one being made owing to a fear that 
the original one might be worn out with 
constant use. While he mentions the 
third type of each his theory of how they 
were caused is too vague to be of any 
value. How many stones were made 
for each value does not appear to be 
known. In fact, taking it as a whole, 
the published information regarding this 
issue is far from satisfactory and these 
three stamps form a fine field for origi- 
nal research for a collector, with the 
time, means, and patience to accumulate 
the necessary material and study it 


properly. The late Mr. Robert Ehren- 
bach stated that being lithographed, each 
stamp on a sheet differed slightly from 
the others though, owing to superior 
workmanship, he admitted that the dif- 
ferences in the case of the 1/10 thaler 
were very minute. 

Quite an extensive range of shades can 
be found in all three values. 

Reference List. 

1852. Lithographed. Imperforate. 

1. 1/30 thaler black on blue, Scott's No. 1. 

2. 1/15 thaler black on rose, Scott No. 2. 

3. 1/10 thaler black on yellow, Scott's No. 3. 


In February 1855, a new value was 
added to the set for the prepayment of 
the rate on newspapers and other printed 
matter. This is very similar in design 
to the other denominations but has the 
value " l / 3 SILB. GR." on the shield 
and "4 SCHW." on the scrolls at each 
side. Up to this time all printed matter 
enclosed in wrappers had to be prepaid 
in money and as the number of these 
packages had grown to a considerable 
total the time taken in weighing them 
and accepting the proper fee in money 
often proved a serious embarrassment 
to the postal employes. In December, 
1854, therefore, the Administration or- 
dered Stalling to prepare a stamp of 
the required value and at the same time 
the following official notice was pub- 
lished : 

It was decreed in the official notifi- 
cation of December 28, 1851, that pack- 
ets in wrappers could not be prepaid 
by means of stamps. As it has been 
found in the meantime that it is de- 
sirable that such packets be prepaid 
by stamps, the Postal Administration 
has ordered such stamps to be made, 
presuming that the Government will 
sanction this order. 

The value, 4 schwaren, is contained 
on a shield below the coat of arms of 
Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, surmounted 
by a crown, and on the right and left- 
hand sides in scrolls, underneath 
the shield is the word "OLDEN- 

The stamps are on green, the im- 
pression in black color. Concerning the 
introduction of this stamp, a notice 
will have to be published in the Offi- 
cial Gazette, which the Government is 
requested to order. 

(Signed) BOEDECKER. 
In acceding to this request the Govern- 
ment published the following decree un- 
der date, January 30, 1855 : 

Referring to the official notification 
of 28 December, 1851, concerning post- 
age stamps, and in alteration of Arti- 
cle 2 of the same, it is hereby notified 
that packets in wrappers can also be 
prepaid by stamps, from the 1st of 
February, in the same manner and 
under the same conditions as letters. 
The stamps are of green color, with 
black impression, and are of the value 
of 4 schwaren. 

The stamps can be bought from the 
date named at all post offices. 



The value schwaren was abbreviated 
to "schw" on the stamps. The schwaren 
was a small copper coin, peculiar to 
Oldenburg, worth only about J^c in 
United States currency. 

The stamps were lithographed in the 
same manner as the others and printed 
in sheets of 100 in ten rows of ten. 
There do not appear to be any minor 
varieties of importance while the color 
of the paper hardly varies at all. It 
would appear that the total number is- 
sued was not large while, judging from 
the present catalogue price of used spec- 
imens, the use of this value was some- 
what restricted. 

Reference List. 

1855. Lithographed. Imperf. 
4. l/3sgr (4schw) black on green Scott's 
No. 4. 


On January 24th, 1857, Oldenburg con- 
cluded a monetary convention with other 
German States according to which only 
the thaler of" 30 groschen was to be 
legal currency, and the old thaler of 72 
grote was abolished. As the stamps then 

current did not agree with the new coin- 
age so far as some of the inscriptions 
were concerned it was decided to issue 
a new series. Matters were, however, 
taken very leisurely and it was not un- 
til eighteen months later that the new 
.stamps were placed on sale. Of such 
little consequence was the change con- 
sidered by the Postal Administration, 
notwithstanding that the design chosen 
was a very different one from that of 
1852, that no official notification of any 
sort appears to have been published. 
The new stamps were, apparently, dis- 
tributed to the postmasters without com- 
ment and were placed on sale at each 
post office just as soon as supplies of the 
old stamps were exhausted. As no offi- 
cial date of issue was stipulated we have 
to rely on dated obliterated specimens 
and from these it would seem that the 
stamps were probably placed on sale in 
July or August, 1859. 

The design is similar for all four 
values and consists of the grand-ducal 
coat of arms, surmounted by a ducal 
crown, on a plain oval ground, with 
"OLDENBURG" on a scroll above it, 
and the value in words on a similar 
scroll below. On each side of the cen- 
terpiece are small ovals containing the 
numerals of value, while the spaces 
above and below these are filled with 
leaf-like ornamentation. 

The stamps were designed and litho- 
graphed at the works of Gerhard Stall- 
ing, and as in the case of the previously 
current stamps, a separate engraving on 
stone was made for each value. They 
were printed in sheets of 100 in ten 
rows of ten, in black on colored papers. 
Naturally, as the stamps were produced 
by lithography minor varieties exist but 
the only one of prominence occurs on 
the 3 groschen. On one stamp on the 
stone the D of OLDENBURG was so 
malformed as to more nearly resemble 
a B. 

The T /3 groschen seems to have been 
but little used and it is by far the rarest 
of the series. Tn the 1 and 2 groschen 
fairly pronounced shades may be found. 

Reference List. 

1859. Lithographed. Imperf. 

5. l/3gr black on green, Scott's No. 5. 

6. Igr black on blue, Scott's No, 6. 

7. 2gr black on rose, Scott's No. 7. 

8. 3gr black on yellow, Scott's No. 8. 


A Post-office circular, dated December 
15th, 1860, announced that on January 
1st, 1861, coincident with an issue of 
stamped envelopes, a new issue of adhe- 
sive stamps would be made, printed in 
color on white paper, the values being 
1 A, l /z, l /2, 1, 2, and 3 groschen. The de- 
signs for the 1/3, 1, 2, and 3 groschen 
were the same as those for the preced- 
ing issue and it is evident the same 
original dies were used. Possibly, too, 
for the earlier printings the same stones 
were used. The two new values are a 
little different in design. The ducal 
coronet is larger, nearly as large as the 
coat of arms ; and these are on a ground 
of solid color. The ends of the scrolls 
containing the inscriptions above and 
below the centre are prolonged down- 
wards or upwards and these extensions 
fill the spaces occupied by the arabesques 
on the other values. How many print- 
ings were made is not known but most 
of the values fall into two divisions 
which may be described as hazy and 
clear prints, respectively. The former 
were evidently the earlier printings, the 
result of lack of knowledge on the part 
of the lithographers as to how to deal 
with colored inks. As they became 
more expert their work improved result- 
ing in the clear prints. Quite a number 
of varieties are found in the lettering 
and in the frames of the l /3gr and 3gr 
values from which it would appear that 
new stones were laid down and for 
these a number of defective transfers 
were used. Of these varieties the most 
prominent are "OLDEIBURG," which is 
found on both values, and "Dritto" and 
"Drittd," found on the ^gr. An inter- 
esting minor variety of the Igr is known 
with a pointed numeral at the right hand 
side. This seems of considerable rarity. 

The Y-2. groschen value was necessitated 
by a reduction in the rates for local let- 
ters which had previously required a 
Igr stamp. The ^4gr was for no par- 
ticular rate but was used in conjunction 
with other values when the postal 
charges, as was frequently the case, re- 
sulted in such fractional charges as Y$ 
or Y$. It is the rarest value of the set 
in used condition. 

All values exist in a number of shades 
the }/3gr and Igr in narticular furnishing 
a number of distinctive tints. Errors of 
the Igr and 3gr are known printed on 
both sides. The former was first dis- 
covered in 1894 while the latter was not 
known until some years later, 

Reference List. 

1861. Lithographed. Imperf. 

9. 54 gr orange, Scott's No. 9. 

10. l/3gr green, Scott's No. 10 or No. 11. 

11. i/ 2 gr brown, Scott's No. 12 or 12a, 
1L'. Igr blue, Scott's No. 13. 

13. 2gr red, Scott's No. 14. 

14. 3gr yellow, Scott's No. 15. 


On March 9th, 1861, the Prussian 
Postal Administration addressed the 
following circular to the various signa- 
tories to the German-Austrian Postal 
Union : 

Experience has shown that the dif- 
ferences in the colors of the stamps 
and stamped envelopes used by the 
various states in the postal convention 
make the ascertaining whether the 
correct postage has been paid very 
difficult. It is, therefore, desirable 
that the stamps and stamped envelopes 
of 1, 2 and 3sgr and their equivalents 
should have the same colors. In 
order to attain this the General Post 
Office has the honor to recommend 
the following propositions : 

I. The said stamps to be printed in 
the colors shown by the enclosed en- 

1 silbergroschen=3 kreuzer (Rhine 
States) =5 new kreuzer=l>2 schilling 
(Mecklenburg) =2 schilling (Hamburg 
and Lubeck)=3 grote (Bremen) =12^ 
centimes (Luxemburg), in red. 

2sgr=6kr (Rhine States) =10 n. kr. 
=3sch (Mckl.)=3sch (Hbg. and 
Lbk.)=5grt (Brem.)=25c (Lux.) in 

3sgr=9kr (Rhine States) =15 n. kr. 
=5sch (Mckl.)=4sch (Hbg. and 
Lbk.)=7grt (Brem.)=37^c"in dark 

II. The same colors, according to 
the values, should be applied to the 
stamped envelopes. 

III. To facilitate the operation of 
obliteration all stamps should be 
affixed in the upper right-hand corner. 

IV. Proposed alterations, to come 
into force as soon as a new issue is 

The General Post Office requests an 
answer to these propositions. 

BERLIN, March 9, 1861. 
General Post Office of the Kingdom of 


(Signed) WEDDIGS. 

Nearly all the administrations as- 
sented to these proposals and in con- 
formity to these suggestions Oldenburg 
issued a new series in 1862. As the issue of 
1861 had hardly given satisfaction, Stal- 

ling was asked if he could not print the 
new stamps by some other process than 
lithography. It was suggested that the 
stamps be engraved but Stalling refused 
to undertake the work, owing to lack of 
the necessary facilities. 

A requisition was, therefore, sent to 
the Prussian State Printing Works, ask- 
ing if they would undertake to supply 
the new stamps. The printing works 
replied that they were prepared to exe- 
cute the order at a cost of about $37.50 
for the necessary dies and plates for 
each denomination in addition to the 
cost of printing. 

The Postal Administration of Olden- 
burg agreed to the price and it was de- 
cided the same design should be used 
for all five values (the %gr was 
dropped from this series as being no 
longer necessary). The design shows 
the arms of the Grand-duchy sur- 
mounted by a ducal coronet, embossed 
on an oval ground of solid color. This 
is enclosed within an oval band on 
which, on an engine turned ground, is 
the name "OLDENBURG" at top, and 
the value in words at the base, while 
on small discs at the sides the numerals 
of value are displayed. There was no 
exterior rectangular frame. The arms 
were engraved on steel by Herr Schil- 
ling ; from this die Weitmann, a mechani- 
cian, made a punch with the aid of 
which he sunk five dies of the Arms, 
around which oval bands were engine- 
turned and engraved by schilling. From 
these completed dies, Mr. Westoby tells 
us, "fifty lead moulds were taken, and 
these were clamped together in five 
rows of ten. From this block of fifty- 
two electrotypes were taken, making, 
when combined, the printing plates of 
100 stamps. The rows were numbered 
at the top, bottom and sides, as was the 
practice with almost all the stamps em- 
bossed at Berlin." The stamps were 
printed on plain white paper and were 
rouletted in line. At first the roulettes 
gauged 11^ but in 1867 a new machine 
gauging 10 was used. Five printings 
were made in all, the dates of delivery 
of these being June 26th, 1862, October 
31st, 1863, September 30th, 1864, De- 
cember 21st, 1865, and January llth, 
1867. The total quantities printed were : 

l / 3 groschen, 
]/ 2 groschen, 

1 groschen, 

2 groschen, 

3 groschen, 


The 1 groschen of this series is oc- 
casionally found bisected and the halves 
used as l / ? groschen but such use was 
never officially authorized, 

Shades of all values may be found. 
These stamps were withdrawn from use 
on January 1st, 1868, when Oldenburg 
joined the North German Confederation. 

Reference 'List. 

1862. Embossed. Rouletted 10 or 11 J^. 

15. l/3gr green, Scott's Nos. 16, 21 or 21a. 

16. ^zgr orange, Scott's Nos. 17, 22 or 22a. 

17. ]gr rose, Scott's No. 18 or 23. 

18. 2gr blue, Scott's Nos. 19, 24 or 24a. 

19. 3gr bistre, Scott's No. 20 or 25. 


There have been no reprints of any 
of the Oldenburg stamps. The stones 

for the lithographed issues were always 
kept carefully under lock and key when 
not in use, and were defaced when new 
issues were made. The plates for the 
embossed issue were defaced at Berlin 
on February 18th, 1868, and the original 
dies were handed over to the Imperial 

The YA, groschen, as we have stated 
already, was discontinued, as there was 
very little use for it. The post-offices 
were ordered to return their stocks to 
headquarters and of the 35,000 or there- 
abouts so returned small lots were sold 
to various dealers from time to time at 
face value and on December 21st, 1863, 
the balance, amounting to 4790, were 

When the Oldenburg stamps were 
superseded there remained on hand 
about 46,000 of the ^Jgr, 45,000 of the 
, l /2gr, 59,000 of the Igr, 63,000 of the 2gr, 
and 36,000 of the 3gr. These were pur- 
chased from the Government in 1868 
by Mr. Carl Dinklage of Oldenburg for 
$300. Mr. Dinklage sold comparatively 
few of these until 1875 when Mr. Berrig, 
of Hanover, paid him $750 for the stock. 


Prussia is a kingdom of the German 
Empire stretching from Russia in the 
east to Holland in the west, and from 
the Baltic Sea in the north to Bohemia 
and Lorraine in the south. It has an 
area of 134,622 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about forty millions. While 
it is essentially an agricultural country 
its mines are of considerable importance 
and its manufacturing industries are 
very extensive. It is also important 
educationally for within its borders are 
no less than eleven famous universities. 
Prussia is a constitutional and heredita- 
ry monarchy. The king alone exercises 
the executive ; the legislative power he 
shares with the two houses of parlia- 
ment the House of Magnates and the 
Chamber of Deputies. The former num- 
bers 310 members, and the latter 433 
who are elected indirectly by the people. 
Prussia, in common with most other 
Furopean states and kingdoms, has had 
an eventful history which can be traced 
back through many centuries. The for- 
;une of war had added to and taken 
from its dominions until in the 
eighteenth century it suffered so many 
reverses that it became an easy prey to 
French domination. Until 1813, reduced 
to a shadow of its former self, it suf- 

fered numerous indignities at the hands 
of the French which have never been 
forgotten. In 1813, however, with the 
defeat and imprisonment of Napoleon, 
it commenced a new era of prosperity 
which has continued and expanded to 
the present day. By the Congress of 
Vienna much of its old territory was 
restored and many new provinces were 
added. From this date the people were 
imbued with a new spirit of nationality 
and began to dream of a United German 
Empire. The first step towards German 
unity was taken when Prussia unite .1 
several north German State* in a cus- 
toms union, or Zollverein, which was 
shortly afterwards joined by nearly all 
Germany. By taking the lead in this 
matter the influence of Prussia was 
greatly increased. Frederick William 
IV (1840-61), during whose reign post- 
age stamps were first issued, made Ber- 
lin a centre of learning and natura r 
science ; but he refused to grant Viis 
subjects a constitution, and heM ex- 
travagant views regarding royalty. The 
revolutionary movements in 1848, how- 
ever, caused him to modify his convic- 
tions. A national assembly was sum- 
moned to meet at Berlin on May 22nd. 
1848, and the king prepared a new con- 

stitution. Simultaneously war broke out 
with Denmark over the Schleswig- 
Holstein question ; and Frederick Wil- 
liam in 1849 tried to unite the German 
states under the leadership of Prussia. 
This attempt to seize the foremost place 
in Germany was at once resisted by 
Austria, and for a time civil war seemed 
imminent. The year after his accession 
William I (1861-88) appointed Bismark 
his prime minister and minister of for- 
eign affairs. The joint attack of Prussia 
and Austria on Denmark in 1864, and 
the conquest of the duchies of Schleswig 
and Holstein, only served to accentu- 
ate the hostility of the courts of Berlin 
and Vienna, and in 1866 the question of 
the leadership of Germany was fought 
out. Ever since the days of Frederick 
the Great that question had awaited so- 
lution, and it was settled by the victory 
of the Prussians at Sadowa or Konig- 
gratz on July 3rd, 1866. All the states 
north of the Main formed the North 
German Confederation under the leader- 
ship of Prussia. But it required a for- 
eign war to complete German unity. In 
1870 the Franco-Prussian war broke out, 
France 1-eing alarmed at the growth of 
Prussia. The south German states re- 
mained true to King William; France 
was invaded and after the battle of 
Sedan Napoleon surrendered. The war 
brought out a strong feeling among the 
German states for a closer union, and on 
January 18th, 1871, at Versailles, King 
William was solemnly proclaimed Ger- 
man Emperor. The tendency in Ger- 
many since 1870 has been to make 
Prussia more powerful and it has taken 
a leading part in colonial expansion, and 
in the establishment of a powerful navy. 


Although Austria had taken the lead 
in introducing postage stamps into its 
postal service, and Bavaria was the 
first of the German states to issue 
stamps, Prussia was not far behind, and 
by the energy of its postal administra- 
tion rapidly took the lead in postal mat- 
ters throughout Germany. By a decree 
of King Frederick William IV, dated 
December 21st, 1849, new regulations 
for the postal service were introduced 
under which the rates for single letters 
(i. e. those weighing less than 1 loth or 
Y 2 oz.) were fixed as follows: 
Up to 10 German miles, 1 silbergroschen. 
From 10 to 20 German miles, 2 silber- 
Above 20 German miles, 3 silbergroschen. 

Heavier letters were charged accord- 
ing to weight ; the registration fee was 

fixed at 2 silbergroschen, and a com- 
mission of J^sgr was charged on packets 
and money orders. It was also an- 
nounced that stamps would be prepared 
but it was not until October 30th, 1850, 
that a circular from the Minister of 
Trade and Works fixed the issue of the 
stamps to the public to take place on 
November 15th, 1850. At that time the 
currency consisted of the thaler (equal 
to about 72c) divided into thirty silber- 
groschen, each of which in turn con- 
sisted of twelve pfennige. The first set 
consisted of four values 6pf, 1, 2 and 
3sgr. The 6pf stamp 'was largely used 
in payment for the charge for delivering 
letters. This charge was fixed at ^sgr 
(6pf) where there was a post office and 
Isgr for other places. When letters 
were called for no delivery charge was 
made. Shortly after the issue of these 
stamps the German-Austrian Postal 
Union was formed for the interchange 
of correspondence between Austria and 
various German states. It was chiefly 
due to Prussia that this Union was made 
possible this being the first of many 
progressive steps taken by the kingdom 
in the interests of increased postal effi- 
ciency. On May 1st, 1856, a 4pf stamp 
was issued for the prepayment of matter 
sent under wrapper. In 1857 the silber- 
groschen values were printed by typog- 
raphy instead of line-engraving, the mo- 
tive for the change being that of 
economy. In 1858, the first design was 
reverted to and unwatermarked paper 
was introduced; in 1861, following the 
accession of King William I, a new 
series bearing the Prussian coat-of-arms 
appeared ; and in 1866 two high values 
were introduced for use on heavy 
packets. In 1867 a set of five values in 
kreuzer currency was issued, these be- 
ing for use in the states served by the 
Thurn and Taxis administration, the 
management of which Prussia had taken 
over from July 1st, 1867. On the forma- 
tion of the North German Confederation 
on Jan. 1st, 1868, Prussia ceased to 
issue its individual stamps. 


The first set of Prussian stamps, as 
announced in the Official Circular of 
October 30th, 1850, were issued on No- 
vember 15th of that year. The set con- 
sisted of four different values 6pf, 1, 2, 
and 3 silbergroschen by means of 
which the various postal rates then 
availing could be easily made up. All 
four stamps are similar in design and 
show a nrofile portrait of King William 
IV, with head to right, on a ground of 

lines cross-hatched horizontally and ver- 
tically. The portrait is enclosed within 
a rectangular frame inscribed "FREI- 
MARKE" at the top and with the value 
in words at the bottom. The side 
borders are filled with oak-leaf orna- 
mentation, there are small crosses in the 
upper angles, and in the lower corners 
are the numerals of value. The design 
and necessary dies were the work of 
Eduard Eichens, a Berlin engraver. It 
appears that two designs were submitted 
and that the one chosen was modified 
to some extent before the dies were 
engraved. I cannot do better than quote 
from Mr. Ralph Wedmore's interesting 
article in the Stamp Lover for May, 
1910, on this point, viz: 

"He (Eduard Eichens) made two 
silver point drawings. One showed a 
bust of the King, almost full face, on 
a shaded background, with a single- 
lined rectangular frame, with the in- 
scription at foot 1 SGR. KPGA (1 
Silbergroschen, Konigl. Preuss. Gen- 
eral Post Amt), and the figure 1 
in a triangle in each of the upper 
corners. The other showed a bust of 
the King in profile to the right, on a 
black ground, in a double-lined frame, 
with the inscriptions K POST A at 
the top, EIN SILB GR. at the foot 
and the figure 1 in each of the lower 
corners. These two drawings may be 
seen at the Post Office Museum in 
Berlin by anyone -who visits that city. 
This second design was substantially 
approved of, and Eichens thereupon 
engraved it upon steel, but with the 
word POSTMARKE at the top and 
no indication of value at foot. 

"I have not seen the die, which is in 
the Postal Museum in Berlin, but it 
seems highly probable that this origi- 
nal die was used for making the 
stanips issued in 1850. In Captain 
Ohrt's book on the stamps of Prussia 
the suggestion is made that an entirely 
new die, bearing only the head of the 
King and the lined background, was 
engraved and used for making the 6pf, 
1, 2, and 3sgr stamps. Enlargements 
of these four stamps and of the 4pf of 
1856 show very great similarity, the 
only notable point of difference being 
that on the 4pf stamp the features of 
the King are sharper, which makes 
the face look smaller. A comparison 
of the stamps themselves will show 
that the lines of shading on the 4pf 
stamp, although much finer, are practi- 
cally identical in form and position 
with those on the other values. The 
4pf stamp has a softer appearance, due 
to the fine dots between the lines of 
shading, which themselves are for the 
most part broken into dots. Another 

marked point of difference is that on 
the 4pf stamp the oak leaves are neat- 
ly drawn, whereas on the other values 
they are merely indicated by dashes. 

"Failing positive proof to the con- 
trary I suggest that the following 
method was employed. Impressions 
from the original die were taken on 
soft steel rollers, and the fine dots be- 
tween the lines of shading partially 
removed. The roller was then hard- 
ened, and a rather faint impression 
taken on four soft steel blocks, one 
for each of the required values. The 
word POSTMARKE at the top was 
then carefully erased, and FREI- 
MARKE engraved in its place. The 
border, with oak leaves, and the lines 
of shading, were then engraved on 
each of the four dies, following the 
faintly impressed lines of the roller 
impression but with bolder effect. The 
top of the head and forehead are out- 
lined, whereas on the original die this 
was not the case, as may be seen by 
reference to a 4pf stamp. The figures 
and words of value were then added. 
The foregoing theory seems all the 
more probable since there are slight 
differences in the. lines of the hair and 
the shading lines on the face in each 
of the values 6pf, 1, 2, and 3sgr. The 
differences are not of such a nature as 
to suggest that each stamp was inde- 
pendently engraved, but are such as 
would arise when strengthening ex- 
isting lines on a die. 

"Whether my theory be correct, or 
Captain Ohrt's statement be the true 
one, it is certain that dies were made 
from an original die for each of the 
four values in question, and that the 
frame with oak leaves and the in- 
scription at top (and, of course, the 
values at foot) were separately en- 
graved on each of these secondary 
dies, as may be proved by small differ- 
ences, which are common to all stamps 
of each value." 

The plates, made of steel, each con- 
tained 150 impressions arranged in 
fifteen horizontal rows of ten each. The 
vertical rows were then numbered 1 to 
10 in the top margin, and the horizontal 
rows were similarly numbered 1 to 15 
in the left hand margin, while in the 
centre of the right hand margin the 
number of the plate was engraved thus, 
"Platte No. 15". Whether more than 
one plate for each value was used is not 
known but plates now housed in the 
Berlin Postal Museum, are numbered 
as follows : 

6 pfennig, No. 7. 

1 silbergroschen, No. 14 

2 silbergroschen, No. 12 

3 silbergroschen, No. 10 


These numbers probably belong to a 
series referring to the plates made by 
Eichens, or the firm with which he 
worked. The only other number we 
know of is plate No. 13, which was, used 
for the 1 silbergroschen. 

The paper was hand made, water- 
marked with branches of laurel forming 
a wreath, and it was manufactured by 
Ebart Brothers of Berlin. The group 
of 150 watermarks was enclosed within 
a single-line frame broken on the four 
sides for the following watermarked in- 
scription : "FREIMARKEX DER 
age Stamps of the Royal Prussian Post). 

The impression was on white paper 
for the 6 pfennige and on colored pa- 
per for the other denominations. There 
are fairly well marked shades of the 6pf 
and 3sgr values, but the other differ 
hardly at all. 

Mr. Wedmore tells us "the stamps 
were printed in hand presses, the print- 
ing plates being warmed and the paper 
damped. The sheets of stamps printed 
from warmed plates were ready for 
gumming 24 hours later, without tmder- 
going any special drying process. The 
gum consisted of two parts arabic, y\ 
parts dextrine, and l / part animal glue. 
with the addition of a small quantity of 
white lead, and was applied by hand 
with a soft wide brush. The sheets 
were laid between boards, which had 
narrow strips of wood at either end to 
keep each layer apart until they were 
dry, and then placed between warmed 
millboards and put in a press for several 
hours to flatten them." 

As the State Printing Office did not 
exist until January 1st, 1853, the early 
supplies of these stamps were printed 
under contract by a Berlin copper-plate 
printer whose name seems to be un- 

The State Printing Office soon be- 
came a very important establishment and 
in subsequent years printed stamps for 
many of the German States as well as 
those of Prussia itself. In many cases, 
too, the emissions of Prussia served as 
a guide and pattern as to color and 
value for the issues of many of its 
neighbours. To quote from a short ar- 
ticle in the Stamp Collectors' Magazine 
from the pen of Mr. Overy Taylor, "in 
matters postal Berlin was the capital of 
Germany long before she assumed that 
position politically, and it is to the 
credit of the Prussian administration 
that for a long period it vindicated its 
right to direct the postal service of the 
Confederation by the intelligence with 
which it seized on improvements and 
led the way in every useful innovation." 

Reference List, 
1850. Wmk. Laurel wreath. Imperf. 

1. 6pf vermilion, Scott's No. 2 or 2a. 

2. Isgr black on rose, Scott's No. 3. 

3. 2sgr black on blue, Scott's No. 4. 

4. 3sgr black on yellow, Scott's No. 5 or 5a. 


A Ministerial order of April llth, 
1856, reduced the tariff on printed 
matter, etc., sent under open wrapper to 
4 pfennige and on May 1st a stamp of 
this denomination was placed on sale. 
The design is similar to that of the 
values of 1850 and it is evident the same 
original die was employed for the por- 
trait. Mr. Wedmore tells us: 

"The dies and printing plates were 
produced in the same manner as be- 
fore, the original die of the head of 
King Frederick William IV. with the 
word POSTMARKE being used. 
Roller transfers were made on a steel 
die, and the word POSTMARKE 
erased and FREIMARKE inserted in 
the upper label. In the Museum at 
Berlin this steel die may be seen bear- 
ing four impressions from the original 
die. On three of them the word 
POSTMARKE is partially erased, and 
the fourth is completed and was used 
for making the plates for this value. 
The figures and words denoting the 
value were engraved, most probably, 
by Schilling, who had been employed 
by the State since 1851 to engrave the 
dies of the envelope stamps. A com- 
parison with the y 2 groschen value 
shews considerable variation in the 
size of the lettering, which tends to 
prove that this was not the work of 
Eichens. It will also be observed that 
on this stamp the value is given as 
NIGE as on the 6pf stamps." 
There were at least two plates for 
this value and though these were num- 
bered in the right hand margin, the 
words "PLATTE No." and the numbers 
for the horizontal and vertical rows 
were not engraved on the plates. The 
color varies from a dark moss green to 
a pale yellow green. Paper water- 
marked with laurel wreaths was used 


for this value and the stamps were is- 
sued imperforate like the series of 1850. 

Reference List. 

1856. Wmk. Laurel wreath. Imperf. 
5. 4pf green, Scott's No. 1. 


The Government evidently found the 
steel-plate process too costly and in 1856 
it was decided to change the mode of 
manufacture. At the same time it was 
decided to dispense with colored papers 
for the silbergroschen values and print 
the impressions in color instead. The 
public were informed of the impending 
change by means of an Official Notice 
published in December, 1856, viz : 

The stamps of 1, 2, and 3sgr, which 
have hitherto been printed on colored 
papers, will in future be printed on 
white paper. The design of the stamp 
will appear, therefore, instead of in 
black as hitherto, in rose-red for the 
Isgr, in blue for the 2sgr, and in yel- 
low for the 3sgr. 

The Post Offices are hereby in- 
formed of this alteration, and notified 
that the issue of such stamps will be- 
gin with next year, and that the 1, 2, 
and 3sgr stamps printed in black on 
colored paper will remain current until 
the present stocks of same are entirely 


BERLIN, December 23rd, 1856. 
From the wording of this notice it 
has been assumed that the stamps were 
issued on January 1st, 1857, but no 
specimens dated earlier than June ap- 
pear to have been found. The design 
is very similar to that of the first issue 
and it is evident there was no official 
intention of changing the type. The 
portrait of the King was engraved on 
wood by Schilling, the background be- 
ing solid instead of lined as before. 
The frame resembles the former issue 
and has similar inscriptions. The ex- 
pression on the king's portrait differs 
considerably from that of the 1850 type, 
the sleepy appearance of the first having 
given place to a nervous dilletante ex- 
pression in the second. The oak leaves 
at the sides are more clearly defined and 
there is a colon instead of a period 
after "SILBERGR:", this being, of 
course, the correct abbreviation for 

From the original boxwood die en- 
graved by Schilling three subsidiary dies 
were struck and, the necessary details 

of value being added to these, 150 elec- 
trotypes of each were made and clamped 
together in fifteen horizontal rows of 
ten each to form the printing plates. 
The rows were numbered vertically and 
horizontally in the margins on all four 
sides but whether the plates bore dis- 
tinctive numbers or not is unknown. 
The 3sgr plate was ready first and trial 
impressions were made in rose, blue, and 
yellow. As these sheets were gummed 
it was for a time presumed the rose and 
blue stamps were errors of color but we 
now know they were only proofs. 

The stamps were printed on plain 
white wove paper and, as a safeguard 
against forgery in the absence of water- 
mark, this received a colorless network 
impression from a preparation of car- 
bonate of lead before printing. This 
network can be made visible by washing 
the stamps with a solution of hydric 
sulphide, or more permanently and with 
less danger of discoloring the paper by 
the fumes of sulpheretted hydrogen 
which Mr. Wedmore describes as "a 
very evil smelling compound." The gum 
is whiter than that previously used, but 
coarser and much more inclined to 

A die for the 4pf in this type was pre- 
pared and proofs in green are known 
but this value was never issued. 

Reference List. 
1857. No watermark. Imperf. 

6. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 6. 

7. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 7 or No. 7a. 

8. 3sgr yellow, Scott's No. 8 or No. 8a. 


In 1858 the design of the 1, 2, and 3 
silbergroschen values was modified, and 
the new stamps began to appear in Sep- 
tember, being placed on sale as the 
stocks of the former issue became ex- 
hausted in the various post offices. A 4 
pfennige value of similar type was issued 
in 1859. The modification consisted in 
the alteration of the background, which 
was cross-hatched horizontally and ver- 
tically in a similar manner to the line- 
engraved stamps of the first issue. Why 
the change was made is somewhat of a 
mystery unless the authorities presumed 
that the cancellation hardly showed with 
sufficient distinctness against the solid 
background of the preceding series. 
Little is known as to the method of 
manufacture of these stamps but Mr. 
Wedmore tells us that "a comparison 
with the stamps of the last issue shows 
that an impression was taken from the 
same wood-block, the background then 
lined, and the denomination of values, 


both figures and words, separately en- 
graved for each value of the series. The 
shape of the letters and figures differs 
slightly from those of the previous issue." 

All four values were printed typo- 
graphically from electrotyped plates 
composed of 150 impressions in fifteen 
horizontal rows of ten. The rows were 
numbered on the margins as in the case 
of the 1857 issue. They were printed 
on unwatermarked paper, on which the 
invisible network had been previously 
printed. There are several fairly pro- 
nounced shades of all denominations. 

In .iay, 1860, a new printing of the 6 
pfennige value was made from the 
original plate or plates of 1850. As 
these are on unwatermarked paper, how- 
ever, thev cannot be confused with the 
series of 1850. The paper for these 
stamps was also previously printed with 
the colorless network. Pale and deep 
shades of this value may be found. 

Reference List. 

1858-60. No watermark. Imperf. 
9. 4pf green, Scott's No. 9. 

10. 6pf vermilion, Scott's No. 10. 

11. Ispr rose, Scott's No. 11. 

12. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 12 or No. 12a. 

13. 3sgr yellow, Scott's No. 13 or No. 13a. 


King Frederick William IV died on 
January 2nd, 1861 and was succeeded by 
the Emperor William I who early de- 
cided his portrait should not figure on 
the postage stamps by publishing a cab- 
inet order under date of February 17th, 
1861, decreeing that for the new series 
of stamps the Prussian coat-of-arms 
should be used. Economy may have had 
something to do with his decision for 
the new types were common to both ad- 
hesives and envelopes. The issue con- 
sisted of the same values as those pre- 
viously in use and there were two types 
one for the pfennige values and the 
other for the silbergroschen denomina- 
tions. The design consists of a small 
oval of solid color containing a Prussian 
eagle, with outspread wings, having on 
its breast a small shield on which the 
letters "F. R." (for Frederick Rex) are 
inscribed. The frames for the 4 and 
6pf are octagonal while those for the 
other values are oval. All are inscribed 
"PREUSSEN" at top and with the value 
in words below. The method of manu- 
facture differs from that of the pre- 
ceding issues and we cannot do better 
than quote from Mr. Wedmore's article 
regarding this: 

Schilling engraved the eagle, and the 
single lined oval immediately sur- 
rounding it, on a small block of steel. 

This was then hardened and an im- 
pression taken, which latter was then 
impressed on two steel dies. Schilling 
then engraved on one of them the de- 
sign of the pfennige values and on the 
other the design of the silbergroschen 
values, but with no figures or lettering. 
These dies were then hardened and im- 
pressions taken on soft steel dies. On 
these Schilling engraved the word 
PREUSSEN and the denomination of 
value. Two such dies were engraved 
for 5 and 6 silbergroschen but no 
stamps of these values were issued. 

From the above mentioned dies 50 
impressions of each value (except the 
five and six sgr.) were taken on small 
pieces of lead measuring about 23x20 
mm., and these then arranged in five 
horizontal rows of ten, each value sep- 
arately. From these, three electrotype 
plates of each value were taken, and 
the three plates placed together to form 
one plate for printing. The rows were 
numbered on all four sides as in the 
previous issue, and some of the plates, 
perhaps all, were lettered instead of 
being numbered as in the issue of 1850. 
At the top and bottom of each plate 
a "needle point" was provided, which 
was printed in color on the margin of 
the sheet. Its use will be seen in due 

The printing in color and the "em- 
bossing" of the central design was 
done in one process, in fact the central 
design was not, properly speaking, em- 
bossed, but slightly impressed in the 
paper, which was damped before being 
put to press to make the operation 
easier. The sheets of stamps were 
first gummed and then rouletted. For 
the gumming the best gum arabic 
mixed with glycerine was used. 

The rouletting was done in hand 
printing presses in the following man- 
ner. A frame containing vertical rows 
of sharp steel strips connected by 
small horizontal strips, all with their 
edges filed at regular intervals, was 
placed on the press. The frame was 
provided with a hinged lid or cover. 
On this cover at top and bottom were 
two needles, and the sheet of stamps 
was placed on this cover, the needles 
piercing the sheet at the colored 
"needle points" already mentioned, 
thus ensuring that the sheet was accu- 
rately placed over the steel rouletting 
lines. The cover was then lowered 
and the hand lever applied thus press- 
ing the sheet on to the rouletting 
lines. Only one sheet was rouletted 
at a time, and 1000 were rouletted in 
the "working day" of those "good old 
days," which consisted of ten hours. 
The rouletting apparatus was supplied 


by one Sutler, a machine maker of 


An official Circular, dated September 
19th, 1861, was issued to the post-offices 
notifying them of the impending new 
issue and instructions were given that the 
new stamps were not to be sold until the 
stocks of the old issue were entirely 
exhausted. Though the stamps were 
available for use from October 1st, 1861, 
none are known with an earlier date 
than November. 

The colors chosen for the respective 
denominations followed those of the pre- 
ceding set fairly closely with the excep- 
tions of the 3sgr. This was printed in 
yellow brown to conform with the "color 
scheme" adopted by the German-Aus- 
trian Postal Union. 

A Post-office Circular of March 6th, 
1865, announced that a stamp of 3 
pfennige in violet would be added to the 
series and this appeared on April 1st 
following, the design being like that of 
the other pfennige values. This stamp 
was intended for use on printed matter 
sent to Norway. 

All six values may be found in vary- 
ing shades and all are known imperfo- 
rate. These latter are proofs, though 
postmarked specimens exist. 

Reference List. 
1861-65. No. Wmk. Rouletted 11^. 

14. 3pf violet, Scott's No. 14 or No. 14a. 

15. 4pf green, Scott's No. 15 or No. 15a. 

16. 6pf orange, Scott's No. 16 or No. 16a. 

17. Isgr rose, Scott's No. 17. 

18. 2sgr blue, Scott's No. 18 or No. 19. 

19. 3sgr yellow brown, Scott's No. 20 or 

No. 20a. 


The parcel post division of the Prus- 
sian Post-office dealt with parcels, 
money orders, and insured letters and, 
prior to 1866, oayments in connection 
with these were made in cash. With a 
view to saving the immense amount of 
labor entailed by booking all these small 
cash items it was decided to issue 
stamps of the values of 10 and 30sgr 
and, according to an official notice of 
November 24th, 1866, these were not to 
be sold to the public but were to be 
affixed to the parcels, etc. by the postal 

clerks. These stamps were of different 
types and also quite distinct in design 
from all other Prussian stamps. The 
designs were drawn by Schilling and he 
engraved the original dies on copper. 
These dies may now be seen in the 
Berlin Postal Museum. The design for 
the 10 silbergroschen shows large open 
numerals in the centre of a transverse 
oval band inscribed "PREUSSEN" in 
the upper portion and "SILB. GR." in 
the lower, the intervening spaces being 
filled with fourteen small Prussian 
eagles. The oval rests on a rectangular 
background which has no exterior 
frame. The ground work, consists of a 
repetition of the words "ZEHN SIL- 
BERGROSCHEN" in very small type. 
There are thirty-two rows of lettering 
in all and the inscription is shown three 
times in each row. In the large numer- 
al "1" the word "POSTMARKS" is 
shown in small type and the same word 
appears twice in the large "O." The 
design for the 30 silbergroschen shows 
open numerals within a transverse ob- 
long rectangular frame similarly in- 
scribed to the lOsgr. In this value there 
are 10J^ Prussian eagles on each side 
of the frame between the inscriptions. 
The background shows the words 
peated twice in each of twenty horizon- 
tal rows, while the "POSTMARKS" is 
engraved in each of the large numerals 
as in the case of the lOsgr. Mr. Wed- 
more describes the manner in which 
these two stamps were manufactured as 
follows : 

The design was engraved in positive 
form ; that is to say, an impression 
from the die would show the stamp 
reversed. From the die electrotypes 
were taken and arranged in ten hori- 
zontal rows of ten each. The rows 
were numbered in the margin on all 
four sides. The stamps were then 
printed on a special transparent paper 
(not goldbeater's skin), one side of 
which was painted over with a solu- 
tion of collodium and gelatine be- 
fore the printing. The stamps were 
printed on the side thus treated, and 
the gum was then applied on the same 
side. From the foregoing description 
it will be seen that the printed side of 
the paper was affixed to the parcel, 
but the paper being transparent and 
the stamp being positively engraved, 
the design was visible in its proper 
form on what we may call the obverse 
side. The stamps were rouletted in 
the same manner as before described, 
but, on a new frame which made 10 
roulettes in 20 centimetres. The 
unique method of production was the 
invention of a German-American, who 


had sold the patent to the Prussian 

Government some few years before 

these stamps were issued. 

Although Prussia joined the North 
German Confederation on January 1st, 
1868, and in common with other mem- 
bers of the Union ceased to issue its 
own distinctive stamps there was such 
a large stock of these 10 and 30 gros- 
chen stamps on hand that the Confed- 
eration continued to use them until the 
end of February, 1869. 

numbered at the ends of the horizontal 
and vertical rows. 

Reference List. 
J66. No Wmk. Rouletted 10. 

20. lOsgr rose, Scott's No. 21. 

21. SOsgr blue, Scott's No. 22. 


Prussia, having purchased the remain- 
ing rights of the Princes of Thurn & 
Taxis for the sum of three million 
thaler (about $2,250,000), from July 1st, 
1867, was obliged to provide a series of 
stamps in kreutzer currency until fur- 
ther arrangements could be made. 
These stamps were also used in that 
part of Bavaria which was ceded to 
Prussia by the treaty of August 22nd, 
1866, at the close of the war. Five 
values were issued in all 1, 2, 3, 6 and 
9kr. One kreuzer was equal to 3 3/7 
pfennige, and the letter rates were fixed 
at 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer as being the near- 
est equivalents to 1, 2 and 3 silbergros- 
chen. The two lower values were used 
for printed matter, samples and post- 

The design is the same for all and 
consists of a Prussian eagle within a 
hexagonal frame intercepted at the 
sides by a large block for the numerals 
of value, which form part of the solid 
background on which the eagle is em- 
bossed. At the top is "PREUSSEN" 
on an engine-turned background, and at 
the base is "KREUZER" on a similar 

For the central design of the Prus- 
sian eagle the same die was used as for 
the stamps of 1861-65, while the en- 
graving of the rest of the design for the 
respective values was the work of 
Schilling. The stamps were printed in 
sheets of 100, in ten rows of ten, and 
rouletted 16. All four margins were 


Reference List. 
No Wmk. Rouletted 16. 

22. Ikr green, Scott's No. 23. 

23. 2kr orange, Scott's No. 24. 
- 24. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 25. 

25. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 26. 

26. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 27. 


The use of Prussian stamps ceased on 
December 31st, 1867 for, on the follow- 
ing day, the stamps of the North Ger- 
man Confederation came into use. 
There were considerable remainders of 
the issues of 1861-67 and towards the 
end of 1868 attempts were made to dis- 
pose of these. The late M. Moens was 
offered the lot comprising no less than 
a quarter of a million sheets of the 
issues of 1861-67 besides a large number 
of envelopes and a big stock of the ob- 
solete stamps of Schleswig Holstein. 
The minimum price was to be the cost 
of manufacture which, in the case of 
the stamps, was 2 l / 2 thalers per 100 
sheets. The value of the entire lot was 
estimated at 3,000 thalers and as no 
purchaser could be found at that figure 
the numbers were reduced, a portion of 
the stock being sold to a papermaker 
for the purpose of being reduced to 
pulp. The remainder were carefully 
tabulated and consisted, so far as the 
Prussian stamps were concerned, of the 
following : 

1850 6pf 270 copies. 

Isgr 19 copies. 

2sgr 13 copies. 

3sgr 38 copies. 

1856 4pf 85 copies. 

4pf21 copies (unwatermarked 

1857 6pf 80 copies. 
Isgr 10 copies. 
2sgr 6 copies. 
3sgr 30 copies. 

1858 4pf 88 copies. 
Isgr 79 copies. 
2sgr 64 copies. 
3sgr 61 copies. 

1861 4pf, 6pf, 1, 2, 3sgr, 30,000 of 


1865 3pf 30,000. 
1867 1, 2, 3, 6, 9kr, 30,000 of each. 


The 10 and 30sgr, as we have already 
shown, were not offered for sale, these 
being used up as stamps of the Confed- 
eration itself. This lot together with 
about 10,000 envelopes, and over 270,000 
stamps of Schleswig Holstein were sold 
to the late Mr. Julius Goldner, of Ham- 
burg, for 1,000 thalers (about $750). 
The comparatively small quantities of 
the 1850-58 issues were immediately ac- 
quired by M. Moens and it was not long 
before the balance of the stock was en- 
tirely dispersed. 


In 1864 requests were made to the 
Prussian postal authorities by several 
European governments for specimens of 
all stamps that had been issued. As there 
were no more supplies of the first is- 
sue at the Head Post Office (the few 
included in the remainders were found 
in some of the smaller offices at a 
later date, presumably) the five values 
were reprinted in complete sheets from 
the original plates. Regarding these re- 
prints Mr. Wedmore tells us: 

The reprints of the 1, 2 and 3sgr 
values were made on unwatermarked 
paper, and can therefore easily be 
distinguished from the originals. The 
colors of the papers are almost iden- 
tical with those employed for the is- 
sued stamps. 

The reprints of the 4pf stamps were 
also on unwatermarked paper. Two 
shades are known a pale yellow- 
green and a dark blue-green. The 
latter is by many supposed to be a 
color trial of the year 1856, but the 
gumming, and above all the paper, 
resemble so closely that used for the 
yellow-green printing and the 1864 
reprint of the 6pf stamp, that it 
seems more probable that the blue- 
green shade was printed in 1864 owing 
to the yellow-green being of poor ap- 

The reprint of the 6pf stamp is on 
similar paper to the foregoing, and 
can be distinguished from the 1860 
printing of that stamp on unwater- 
marked paper by the absence of the 
colorless network. There is also a 
difference in the shade, but I am not 
expert enough in color definitions to 
describe it. 

Small quantities of these reprints 
were supplied to private persons and 
to dealers at face value, and some 
copies qf the 1 and 2sgr are known 
used postally. 
The total quantity printed of each 

value was very small, and these 1864 re- 
prints are now quite scarce. 

In 1873 a number of reprints were 
made for Julius Goldner, of Hamburg, 
who paid a certain sum to the govern- 
ment for the benefit of the soldiers 
wounded in the Franco-Prussian war. 
The quantities of these were as follows : 
4pf 500 sheets of 150 stamps = 75,000 
6pf 500 sheets of 150 stamps = 75,000 
Isgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000 
2sgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000 
3sgr 200 sheets of 150 stamps = 30,000 
Mr. Wedmore gives interesting de- 
tails of these reprints as follows : 

These reprints are all on water- 
marked paper which was made in the 
same moulds as that used for the 
original stamps, and the two lower 
values resemble very closely the genu- 
ine stamps. The paper is thicker and 
coarser than the originals, and the 
gum is thick, smooth, and "glassy" in 
appearance. The printing is generally 
smudgy, and the green of the 4pf 
stamp has a fresh, bright appearance. 
The 6pf is of a more orange shade of 
vermilion than is found in the origi- 

The paper on which the silbergro- 
schen values were printed is similar in 
texture to that employed for the lower 
values, and the gum is also the same. 
The color of the paper employed for 
the Isgr is a pale wine-red. The 
plates were badly cleaned during the 
printing, and the stamps, consequent- 
ly, have a dirty appearance. 

The same remarks apply to the 2 
and 3sgr values, except as to the color 
of the papers. That used for the 2sgr 
value has changed color, so that the 
stamps now usually appear to be 
printed on a very pale blue paper 
sprinkled with dark blue spots, which 
shew either on the face or the back of 
the stamp. In the case of the 3sgr 
reprints, which were originally on yel- 
low paper, the color has now mostly 
changed to a pale grey, sometimes 
with yellow or pinkish spots, owing to 
some chemical action. 

The whole of the printing was de- 
livered to Julius Goldner, no supply 
being retained by the postal author- 
ities, so that the Postal Museum offi- 
cials had to purchase, in 1890, some 
complete sheets for the collection. 

The reprints were printed from the 
original plates, bearing the following 
numbers: 6pf (No. 7); Isgr (No. 
14) ; 2sgr (No. 6) ; 3sgr (No. 3) ; and 
4pf (No. 1). The two first named 
plates are in the Berlin Postal 
Museum, the others are no longer in 



In addition to the reprints of the 
1850-56 stamps described above so- 
called reprints of the 1857 issue were 
made in 1864 but these are nothing bet- 
ter than official imitations. The original 
electrotyped plates employed in printing 
the originals had long since been de- 
stroyed as also had the dies from which 
the electrotypes had been struck. It 
was necessary, therefore, to make en- 
tirely new dies. These were made from 
a wood-block which now reposes in the 
Berlin Postal Museum with other in- 
teresting relics of the Prussian post. 
Though an attempt was made to copy 
the original design as closely as possible 
there are many differences by which the 
imitations can be easily recognised. 
The most prominent of these is a period 
in place of a colon after the word 
"SILBERGR." The "G" of the same 
word has no crossbar and the "F" of 
"FREIMARKE" has a projecting line 
at the top left side. 

The 3sgr is in a yellow tint very simi- 
lar to that of the originals but the Isgr 
and 2sgr are in shades unlike any found 
in the genuine stamps. The former is 
bright crimson and the latter a laven- 
der-blue. The paper is white-wove and 
thin and the gum is thin, smooth and 
white like that of the reprints of the 

same period. These official imitations 
were printed from plates specially con- 
structed and afterwards destroyed so 
that when an additional supply was re- 
quired in 1873 they were printed direct 
from the wood-block, and the three sub- 
sidiary dies taken from the wood-block. 
Mr. Wedmore tells us that these were 
printed "on strips of paper measuring 
about 2J4 by 6^ inches. On each strip 
were printed the Isgr, 3sgr, 2sgr and 
woodblock (without value) in the order 
named, and impressions were taken in 
carmine red, deep blue, brownish yel- 
low and black. These are ungummed." 


Forgeries of the first three issues are 
fairly plentiful but all I have seen are 
so crude that they would hardly deceive 
the veriest tyro. Mr. Wedmore states 
that forgeries of the lOsgr and 30sgr 
are also known though I have never 
come across these. They are said to 
be a little dangerous though the eagles 
and lettering are very badly drawn com- 
pared with the originals. The paper 
is very different being thin and white 
instead of tough and yellowish as in 
the genuine stamps. 


Saxony is a kingdom of Germany, be- 
ing fifth in area and third in population 
among the states of the empire. It is 
surrounded by Bohemia, Silesia, Prus- 
sian Saxony, and the minor Saxon 
States, and has a total area of 5,787 
square miles. The population grows 
fast and had nearly quadrupled in the 
period 1815-1900. At the present time 
it has nearly reached the five million 
mark and is the most densely peopled 
country in Europe. The River Elbe di- 
vides the kingdom into two almost equal 
parts, both hilly and both well watered. 
The predominating geographical feat- 
ure of the western half is the Erzgebirge 
(2,500 feet) separating it from Bo- 
hemia; of the eastern half, offsets of the 
Riesengebirge, and the sandstone forma- 
tion, above Dresden, known as the 
Saxon Switzerland. Agriculture is 
highly developed though most of the 
farms are small. Saxony's chief inter- 
ests are, however, manufacturing and 
mining. Coal, iron, cobalt, tin, copper, 
lead and silver are all found, the latter 

having been mined at Freiberg since 
the 12th century. 

The people are in part of Slav de- 
scent, but Germanised. Amongst them 
are between 50,000 and 60,000 Wends 
(pure Slavs). Education stands at a 
high level, the university at Leipzig, for 
instance, being one of the most import- 
ant educational centres of the empire. 
The capital is Dresden, while the three 
largest towns are Dresden, Leipzig and 
Chemnitz. Saxony is a constitutional, 
hereditary monarchy, with a parlia- 
ment of two chambers. It sends four 
members to the Imperial Council and 
twenty-three representatives to the 

The name of Saxony formerly des- 
ignated a very large tract in north 
Germany, extending from the Weser to 
the frontiers of Poland. At the peace 
of 1495 the Emperor Maximilian I, di- 
vided Germany into two circles, of 
which the extensive tract of country 
hitherto called Saxony formed three, 
viz : Westphalia, Lower Saxony and 


Upper Saxony. The last of these com- 
prised the electorates of Braddenburg 
and Saxony, the duchy of Pomerania, 
and several small principalities. The king- 
dom of Saxony was formed out of the 
electorate of the same name. The 
duchy of Saxony, to which the elec- 
torial dignity and the office of hereditary 
marshall of the empire were attached, 
was, however, no part of the ancient 
German duchy of that name (which was 
composed of Lauenberg and a tract on 
the other side of the Elbe), but a 
Wend or Vandal province, which Al- 
bert the Bear, margrave of Salzwedel, 
of the house of Ascania, had conquered 
and left to his son Bernhard. This 
Bernhard received from the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa the dignity of Duke 
of Saxony, to which were attached a part 
of Engern and Westphalia, extending 
from the Weser, which separated it 
from Eastphalia, westward to the Rhine. 
But Bernhard not being powerful 
enough to maintain his rights, most of 
the Saxon allodial proprietors became 
immediate estates of the empire by 
which the duchy was dissolved, and 
its name transferred to the country in- 
herited by Bernhard from his father, 
to which from that time the ducal dig- 
nity was attached. The house of As- 
cania becoming extinct on the death of 
Albert III (1422), the Emperor Sigis- 
mund invested Frederick the Warlike, 
margarve of Meissen, with the electoral 
title and the duchy of Saxony. He was 
succeeded in the electoral dominions by 
his son, Frederick the Mild, who reigned 
from 1428 to 1464. On his death his 
dominions were divided between his two 
sons, Albert and Ernest, who were the 
founders of the Albertine and Ernes- 
tine lines, the former of which still 
reigns in the kingdom of Saxony, and 
the latter is divided into four branches 
of Saxe - Altenburg, Coburg - Gotha, 
Meiningen and Weimar. , 

In the war with France (1793) 
Saxony furnished only a small contin- 
gent and took no decided part; but in 
1806 the elector sent all his troops to 
support the kin of Prussia. The ruin 
of the Prussian power at the battle of 
Jena enabled Napoleon to gain the 
Saxons to his cause. Prussian Poland 
was added to the dominions of Saxony 
under the title of the grand-duchy of 
Warsaw, and the title of elector was 
changed to that of king. After the 
overthrow of Napoleon at Leipzig 
(1813), the king was for a time a pris- 
oner in the hands of the allies, and the 
Congress of Vienna deprived him of 
more than half his dominions, or a ter- 
ritory of 7,880 square miles, which was 

handed over to Prussia. Saxony took 

the side of Austria in the Seven 
Weeks' War (1866) shared in the de- 
feat of Sadowa and was compelled to 
join the North German Confederation. 
In 1871 Saxony became a member of 
the new German empire. 


The German-Austrian Postal Union 
was formed on April 6th, 1850, and as 
Saxony at once decided 1 to join it was 
necessary to take measures for pro- 
viding postage stamps. The kingdom 
of Bavaria had issued stamps in the 
previous year and the Government of 
Saxony therefore applied to that king- 
dom for information. In response to 
this appeal the Bavarians sent copies of 
all their acts and decrees relating to 
the issue of stamps, together with spec- 
imens of the postage stamps which had 
been issued. As the question of de- 
ciding upon an entire issue required 
some deliberation, it was determined 
to make a start by providing a stamp 
of small value for prepaying the rate 
of postage on journals and printed mat- 
ter. This stamp was the now famous 
3 pfennige red 1 the design of which, it 
will be noticed, is a palpable copy of the 
1 kreuzer Bavaria. On June 22d, 1850, 
a notice appeared stating that from 
July 1st following, articles under wrap- 
per destined for any place within the 
circuit of the royal post of Saxony or 
for Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, the 
Mecklenburgs, Anhalt - Schwarzburg, 
Waldeck, or Hamburg, must be pre- 
paid with stamps of three pfennige for 
every loth (about Y?. oz.) in weight, and 
that the post-office had prepared such 
stamps, the sale of which would com- 
mence on June 29th, though they were 
not to be used until July 1st. For the 
definite issue of August 1st, 1851,. more 
elaborate designs were selected. Vari- 
ous methods of production were con- 
sidered and numerous essays were sub- 
mitted by J. B. Hirschfeld, who printed 
the 3pf red. Hirschfeld could, appar- 
ently, only produce stamps by the typo- 
graphic process and while this was con- 
sidered suitable enough for the lowest 
value, used for printed matter, it was 
hardly considered good enough for the 
higher denominations. Consequently 
Hirschfeld 1 only obtained the contract 
for printing the 3 pfennig stamps, in a 
design showing the Arms of the king- 
dom, while the contract for manufactur- 
ing the higher values was awarded to 
C. C. Meinhold & Sons, of Dresden, a 
firm well-known for the production of 
engravings by the glyphographic pro- 
cess. There were four values in aJJ^ 


l / 2 , 1, 2, and 3 neugroschen showing a 
profile portrait of Frederic Augustus 
II. King Frederic died on August 9, 
1854, and was succeeded by his brother 
John. Steps were at once taken to pro- 
vide new stamps and though these were 
ready by the end of the year they were 
not issued until June 1st, 1855. The 
numismatic rule of setting the profile of 
a reigning sovereign the reverse way to 
that in which it was placed on the coins 
etc., of his predecessor was followed. 
With the exception of the portrait the 
design was altered as little as possible; 
the values were the same and the same 
colors were used. No change was made 
in the 3pf value, as it bore the coat-of- 
arms, and this denomination continued 
to be printed by Hirschfeld. It was 
found desirable to have higher values 
than 3ngr for use on letters sent beyond 
the confines of the German-Austrian 
postal union and on April 24th, 1856, 5 
and lOngr stamps were issued. In de- 
sign these were similar to the lower 
values but they were printed in color 
on white paper instead of in black on 
colored papers as was the case with all 
previously issued neugroschen stamps. 

In March, 1861, the head of the Prus- 
sian Post-office called attention to the 
confusion that was created by so many 
states of the German-Austrian Postal 
Union using stamps of corresponding 
values in different colors, and suggested 
that all stamps of similar value, whether 
expressed in schilling, grote, groschen, 
or kreuzer, should be printed in the 
same color, and that the same rule 
should be applied to the stamped en- 
velopes, which should have the stamp 
in the right upper angle, and the ad- 
hesivcs placed in the same position; and 
he advised new issues to be made to 
carry out these suggestions. These pro- 
posals met with general approval, and 
Saxony immediately prepared for a new 
issue. Various firms were invited to 
submit designs, but only four did so and 
the contract was eventually awarded to 
Giesecke and Devrient, of Leipzig. The 
new stamps had the arms of Saxony in 
colorless embossing in the centre, and 
they are certainly inferior in appearance 
to their predecessors. With this issue 
perforation w r as introduced for the first 
time. The values were the same as be- 
fore except that the 10 neugroschen was 
dropped. The demand for this value 
was found to be exceedingly small and 
at the time the new series appeared, 
July 1st, 1863, quite a large proportion 
of the original supply of the lOngr of 
1856 still remained on hand. Saxony, 
as we have already shown, was com- 
pelled to join the North German Con- 
federation and on the appearance of the 

Confederation stamps on January 1st, 
1868, its separate stamps were sup- 

The currency of Saxony was the thal- 
er, worth about 72c, which was divided 
into 30 neugroschen. One neugroschen 
was equivalent in value to a silbergros- 
chen, but was divided into ten instead 
of twelve pfennige. 


Among all the stamps issued by the 
various German States none is more 
popular than the first stamp issued in 
Saxony the 3 pfennige red. It is not 
a very handsome stamp, or even one of 
original design, but it is merely a some- 
what crude copy of the Ikr stamp issued 
by Bavaria in 1849, as we have already 
pointed out. This particular stamp 
seems always to have been in demand 
from the earliest days of stamp collect- 
ing, the real reason of its popularity be- 
ing that it was one of the most difficult 
stamps to obtain as well as one of the 
first used in the German Empire. This 
stamo was produced in a hurry and did 
not receive the careful consideration ac- 
corded to the other postage stamps is- 
sued by Saxony in the following year. 
The reason for its hurried manufacture 
lies in the fact that it was intended for 
use on newspapers and printed matter 
which, under the newly formed postal 
Convention between Austria and vari- 
ous German States, had to be prepaid. 
If not prepaid, the packages were 
charged full letter rate. Not only had 
these packages to be prepaid but the 
Saxon Government insisted that stamps 
must be used and payment in cash was 
not allowed. The design consists of a 
large open "3" covered with a maze- 
work pattern on a ground composed of 
fragments of wavy lines within a frame 
18 1 / 2 mm. square. The frame is about 
3% mm. wide and is inscribed 
"SACHSEN" at top, "FRANCO" at 
base, "DREI" at left, and "PFEN- 
NIGE" at right. In each of the angles 
is a small ornament with a star-like 

The stamps were manufactured at the 
printing establishment of J. B. Hirsch- 
feld, a printer and lithographer of 
Leipzig. The original die was en- 
graved in relief on metal and from this 
moulds were taken in plaster, or some 
similar material, from which Arnold, 
the stereotyper in Hirschfeld's works, 
took casts in type-metal. The stamps 
are not all of equal size the variations 
being due to unequal shrinkage of the 
plaster moulds in drying, It is also 

probable, as Mr. Westoby points out, 
that Arnold, to save time, used some 
of his to produce moulds for others. 

It is probable only twenty moulds 
were made for the stamps were 
printed in sheets of twenty in four 
horizontal rows of five. It has been 
suggested that there was another plate 
used for some of the later printings but 
no satisfactory proof of this has been 
produced. Lines of printer's rule were 
placed between the casts and in re- 
ferring to these Mr. Westoby says they 
ran "vertically down the sheet unin- 
terruptedly; but the horizontal lines 
were broken and did not touch the 
vertical lines." Unless, however, a 
second plate was used, or a resetting 
of the casts made, this statement must 
be inaccurate for in a superb mint 
block of four illustrated in a German 
paper some little time ago the hori- 
zontal lines are distinctly continuous 
and it is the vertical ones which are 
broken. The stamps were printed on 
ordinary white wove paper and they 
are, of course, not perforated. The 
gum is of a distinctly yellow hue. 

The first lot of stamps consisting of 
120,000 (6,000 sheets) was delivered by 
the end of June and the public's ap- 
preciation of them may be gauged from 
the fact that only 19,000 remained by 
the 20th of August. Two days later 
another supply of 60,000 was delivered. 
Both these lots were ordered orally but 
after that it was decreed that future 
orders must be made in writing from 
the office of the Main Postal Treasury. 
Six further lots were ordered and de- 
livered as follows : 

Stamps or Sheets 

October 8th, 1850, 40,000 2,000 

November 4th, 1850, 60,000 3,000 

December 19th, 1850, 60,000 3,000 

February 22nd, 1851, 40,000 2,000 

April 3rd, 1851, 80,000 4,000 

June 17th, 1851, 40,000 2,000 

Altogether, therefore, 500,000 of 
these stamps were printed and delivered. 
One sheet of twenty stamps was sent 
to the Finance Ministry at Dresden as 
a sample, 463,058 stamps were sold, and 
the remaining 36,922 were burnt on De- 
cember 10th, 1851. In the early nineties 
the sheet sent to the Treasury was ap- 
parently cut up and the stamps sold 
singly at a dollar or so apiece. 

That this stamp was only intended as 
a temporary issue is shown by a remark 
contained in the official notification of 
June 22nd, 1850, viz: "This form is, 
however, only provisional, and will be 
altered when postage stamps for cor- 
respondence (letters) are introduced." 
This stamp was replaced bv the 3pf 
green label, in the Arms type, on Au- 

gust 1st, 1851, and it was then decreed 
that no more of the red stamps were to 
be sold at the post-offices. At the same 
time the public were informed they 
could use any of the red stamps they 
possessed but that under no circum- 
stances would they be exchanged for 
the new green ones. Writing in the 
Monthly Journal for December, 1900, 
Mr. G. B. Duerst says: "This is the 
reason why the 3 pfennig, red, is so rare 
with the lozenge obliteration, which 
was onlv introduced in March, 1852. 
The usual postmark is the name and 
date stamp, but the earliest obliteration 
was in pen and ink." 

The stamp exists in a number of 
shades, doubtless owing to the many 
printings, but according to the catalogue 
quotations there is little to choose be- 
tween them in point of rarity. . 

The stamp is rare and its scarcity is 
accounted for by the fact that the vast 
majority of the 463,058 stamps sold were 
used on newspaper packages and were 
destroyed in the removal of the wrapper. 

Unused this stamp has always been 
considered scarcer than used but owing 
to the larger demand for used speci- 
mens of recent years there is now little 
to choose between used and unused so 
far as market value is concerned. We 
believe the largest block known in mint 
condition, with original gum, is a block 
of four from the right lower corner of 
a sheet. An entire sheet is, or was, in 
existence, however. This was de- 
scribed in the Monthly Journal in 1896 
as follows: "Mr. Castle secured, for a 
sum of about $1500.00, an unsevered and 
unused sheet of 20 Saxony 3pf red. 
This is believed to be the only sheet 
known, and is the one formerly in the 
Friedl Museum of Vienna. Mr. Friedl 
got it from a Castle in Saxony, where 
it was found pasted on a fire-screen and 
varnished over! Naturally it is not in 
the most brilliant condition, but it is a 
unique piece, and well worth the price 

This 3pf stamp is one that has con- 
sistently shown an appreciation in 
value and of recent years it has 
jumped upwards in price at an astonish- 
ing rate. In 1864 it was worth about 
35c in used condition; in 1884 it was 
quoted 75c; in 1894 its value had in- 
creased to $22, in 1908 it stood at $37; 
while at the present time Scott has it 
quoted at a modest $70, Gibbons at $120, 
while fine copies have approached the 
$150 mark at auction abroad. There is 
a suspicion in some quarters that some 
one is attempting a corner in this stamp 
a not impossible proceeding in view of 
the limited number available and 
should such a "corner" be successful 

there is no knowing to what price this 
variety may yet be forced. 

Few stamps have been so extensively 
counterfeited as this 3 pfennige, one 
writer alone admitting the possession of 
no less than twenty-rive different coun- 
terfeits. Mr. Westoby mentions several 
points which should be of value in de- 
tecting counterfeits, viz. : 

In the ornament in the corners, 
which is in the shape of a quatrefoil, 
the interior design is in the shape of 
a four-rayed star, or rather a round 
uncolored centre to a St. Andrew's 
Cross. In the left upper corner orna- 
ment there is a curved line opposite 
to each extremity of the cross. This 
curved line is wanting opposite the 
left upper extremity of the cross in all 
the other corner ornaments, and also 
opposite the upper right extremity of 
the cross in the right upper orna- 
ment, and this right extremity is long, 
while the left one is very short, as 
also is the upper right one in the 
right lower ornament. In the in- 
scriptions the S and A in SACHSEN 
almost join, as also do the R and E 
in DRIE. There is a break in the 
inner line of the frame opposite the 
I of DRIE. These are the principal 
tests given by Messrs. Collin and Cai- 
man, and in their catalogue enlarged 
engravings are given of the corner or- 
naments. In the genuine stamps there 
is a full stop after FRANCO which, 
curiously enough, is absent in most 
of the imitations." 

Reference List. 

July 1st, 1850. No wmk. Imperf. 
1. 3pf red, Scott's Nos. 1 or la. 


Whilst the first Saxon stamp had 
been designed and issued without much 
care or fuss, many and deep were the 
deliberations before the permanent is- 
sue was decided upon. Various methods 
of production were examined and con- 
sidered; wood engraving was objected 
to, and line engraving was considered 
too expensive. Numerous essays were 
submitted by Hirschfeld and others and 
those of Hirschfeld met with approval. 
Before, however, he received the order 

the firm of C. C. Meinhold and Sons, of 
Dresden, a firm well known for the 
production of engravings by the gly- 
phographic process, made a proposal 
which was accepted by the authorities. 
Hirschfeld's design for the neu-groschen 
values was, therefore, handed to the 
Meinholds and the only order Hirsch- 
feld received was that for printing the 
3 pfennige stamps. The 3pf value was 
again intended for printed matter but 
it now represented the rate within the 
entire German-Austrian Postal Union 
this was the main reason for the 
change of design for this denomination. 
The l / 2 neugroschen was intended for 
local letters; the Ingr for letters sent 
less than 10 miles within the Postal 
Union; the 2ngr for letters between 10 
and 20 miles; and the 3ngr for letters 
beyond 20 miles. 

The design for the 3 pfennige shows 
the Arms of Saxony on a shield sur- 
mounted by a crown within an oval of 
solid color. On a scroll at top is 
"SACHSEN" and on a similar scroll at 
base is "Drie Pfennige." Numerals of 
value, within small circles, are shown 
at the sides and the spaces are filled 
with scroll ornamentation. The whole 
is enclosed within a narrow rectangular 
frame. This stamp was printed in 
sheets of 120, the plate being composed 
of casts taken in type-metal from the 
original die. The stamps were placed 
so closely together that specimens with 
good margins are very difficult to obtain. 
The neugroschen values are all alike in 
design and show a profile portrait of 
King Frederic Augustus II, with head 
to right, on a solid colored ground with- 
in an oval. The inscriptions are similar 
to those of the 3pf except that the lower 
one is "Neu-Grosch.", separated by the 
numeral of value. Numerals are also 
placed at the sides and all four values 
were printed in sheets of 120. The 
early supplies of all values were de- 
livered by the printers in strips of ten 
for some reason or other. Usually the 
sheets were sub-divided horizontally, but 
in some cases the strips were cut verti- 

The 3 pfennige exists in two distinct 
shades blue or dark green and yellow 
green. The colors of the papers for the 
various neu-groschen values also show 
some variation and in dealing with this 
matter I cannot do better than quote 
from an excellent article in the Phila- 
telic Journal of Great Britain, written 
by Mr. D. C. Gray in December, 1908 : 
The l / 2 neu-groschen may be found 
on paper varying from almost white 
to bluish grey, the bluish shades being 
the scarcer. The paper of the 1 neu- 
groschen is sometimes deep and 


sometimes quite pale rose ; that of 
the 3 neu-groschen varies from very 
deep to quite pale yellow; while the 
2 neu-groschen appears printed on 
pale blue and very dark blue paper. 
Some of the shades of the l /2, 1, and 3 
neu-groschen may be due to fading, 
although, considering the large num- 
bers of printings which took place a 
variation in the colour of the papers 
used is not surprising. The change 
of the 2 neu-groschen from pale to 
very dark blue, however, was cer- 
tainly not accidental, but was due to 
definite instructions given to the 
printers by the postal authorities in 

The reason for this order was that 
a postmaster had complained to the 
head office that if the 2 neu-groschen 
stamps (printed in pale blue) were 
much exposed to the light they faded 
into approximately the color of the 
l /2 neu-groschen. By the adoption of 
the dark blue paper any mistakes 
arising from such a cause were 
entirely obviated. These stamps were 
all put on sale on 29th July, and 
were to frank letters from 1st Au- 
gust, 1851. The quantities printed 
of each value of this set were as 
follows : 

3 pfennige, 12,500,000; l /2 neu- 
groschen, 5,100,000; 1 neu-groschen, 
5,700,000; 2 neu-groschen, light blue, 
700,000; 2 neu-groschen dark blue, 
1,500,000; and 3 neu-groschen, 
2,350,000. There were twenty-four 
printings of the 3 pfennige; seventeen 
of the y* and 1 neu-groschen, and 
sixteen of the 2 and 3 neu-groschen. 
By far the rarest stamp of Saxony is, 
pf course, the y* neu-groschen printed 
in error on the pale blue paper of the 
2 neu-groschen. The existence of this 
error seems to have been quite unknown 
until Dr. Kloss published his "History 
of the Stamps of the Kingdom of 
Saxony" in 1883 or 1884. According to 
Dr. Kloss "On August 22nd, 1851, the 
Post-office at Leipzig informed the G. 
P. O. at Dresden, that they had found 
a quantity of stamps among the 2ngr 
blue which had, instead of '2 Neu- 
groschen,' the inscription '^ neu- 
groschen' although printed in the correct 
color of the 2ngr stamps, viz., blue. On 
referring to the printers' statement it 
was found that only 120 stamps were 
printed in this color by mistake, 63 of 
these were sold over the counter before 
the mistake was found out, the remain- 
ing 57 were returned to the G. P. O. 
at Dresden." There is little doubt that 
the 63 stamps which were sold to the 
public, were sold as 2ngr stamps, whose 
color they bore, and they were used as 

It appears the Post-office sold the er- 
rors singly and in strips of ten and 
when they discovered the mistake the 
purchasers were written to and asked 
to return the stamps as any letters 
franked with them might possibly be 
treated as unpaid by other offices. 
When Dr. Kloss made his notes public 
the hunt for the errors began and some 
of the firms written to by the Leipzig 
post-office in 1851 were hunted out. 
This resulted in the discovery of one 
of the letters written by the Post-office 
with an unused strip of ten of the er- 
rors pinned to it. Due to the forget- 
fulness of a clerk this letter was never 
returned to the postal authorities ! Herr 
Blauhuth, of Leipzig, secured this strip, 
and for ten years these were the only 
copies known. The owner first sold a 
pair, inlcuding the one spoiled by the 
pin-holes, for $37.50, while his last copy 
realised $300. The 57 errors which 
were returned to Dresden should have 
been destroyed but, in 1891, 24 of the 
stamps were found in an envelope 
pinned to an old document relating to 
the former postal accounts in the De- 
partment of Finance, Dresden. What be- 
came of the other 33 is a mystery which 
will probably never be solved most 
likely they were destroyed as was 
originally intended. These errors were 
included in a set of so-called "essays" 
put on the market by the Saxon Gov- 
ernment at 75c each. The history of 
the error had been forgotten by the 
officials but not by collectors and con- 
sequently the sets sold like the proverbial 
hot cakes. Most of these 24 errors 
were single copies but in the lot was 
one strip of five and one block of four, 
the latter eventually passing into the 
famous Mann collection. But though 
this error is one of the great rarities 
unused it is even scarcer used. There 
is a pair in the Tapling collection, an- 
other pair in a German collection, and 
a few single copies are known. 

Reference List. 

1851. No. wmk. Imperf. 

2. 3 pfennige green, Scott's Nos. 2 or 2a. 

3. y 2 neu-groschen, black on grey, Scott's 

No. 3. 

4. 1 neu-groschen, black on rose, Scott's 

No. 5. 

5. 2 neu-groschen, black on blue, Scott's 

Nos. 6 or 7. 

6. 3 neu-groschen, black on yellow, Scott's 

No. 8. 


The death of King Frederic Augustus 
II on August 9th, 1854, and accession 
of his brother John, made a change in 
the portrait stamps necessary. As the 3 
pfennige value bore the Arms of the 
kingdom it was not deemed necessary 
to make any change in these and they 
continued to be printed by Hirschfeld. 
The other values of l /2, 1, 2 and 3 neu- 
groschen were manufactured by Mein- 
hold and Sons. Little alteration was 
made in the framework but in the centre 
the portrait of King John superseded 
that of his predecessor. The profile is 
shown to the left instead of to the right 
as on the 1851 stamps. The new stamps 
were all ready by the end of 1854 but 
they were not placed on sale until about 
August, 1855. The stamps were printed 
in black on colored papers as before, 
but a change was made in tne size of the 
plates which now consisted of 100 in- 
stead of 120 subjects. In 1856, 5 and 10 
neu-groschen stamps were added to the 
set as it was found desirable to have 
some higher values for use on letters 
sent beyond the confines of the German- 
Austrian Postal Union. These two 
stamps were printed in color on white 
paper like the 3pf denomination. More 
than one plate was used for some of the 
values and some of these show varia- 
tions in the size and shape of the 
numerals in the small ovals at the sides. 
These differences are particularly notice- 
able in the l /2 and 1 neu-groschen. How 
many plates were used altogether is not 
known but when Messrs. Meinhold and 
Sons lost the printing contract in 1863 
they sent to the Dresden Post-office the 
original dies of the six values, together 
with four reliefs and five printing plates 
of the ^ngr, two reliefs and five print- 
ing plates of the Ingr, two reliefs and 
three printing plates of each of the 
2ngr and 5ngr, and one relief and two 
printing plates of the lOngr. The 
plates of the 3ngr do not appear to 
have been sent at that time and no offi- 
cial record of their receipt at a later 
date has been found. 

Shades are numerous and again I 
cannot do better than quote Mr. Gray 
on this subject, viz : 

All the stamps of this set vary con- 
siderably in shade, as is only to be 
expected in the case of a long-lived 
series. The following are the prin- 
cipal variations : 

neu-groschen, black on pearl grey, 
grey, lilac grey, jet-black 
on grey. 

1 neu-gr, deep rose, rose, pale rose. 

2 " blue, deep blue, greenish 


3 neu-gr, deep yellow, yellow, pale 

5 pale red, russet brown, 

red brown, vermilion. 
10 blue, deep blue. 

Some of the shades of the l / 2 neu- 
groschen are much scarcer than others ; 
the greenish blue shade of the 2 neu- 
groschen is scarce used, though com- 
mon unused, and the russet brown 5 
neu-groschen is very scarce. Appar- 
ently this color was used by mistake, 
and though some of the stamps 
printed in this shade were issued, the 
printer was compelled to supply others 
instead, printed in the proper color, 
and the balance of the russet-brown 
stamps were destroyed by the postal 
authorities. (There were 100,000 of 
these errors, of which 62,200 were 
sold according to Mr. Westoby though, 
as will be seen below, Mr. Gray puts 
the number at 4,000 more). 

The 5 neu-groschen is found on 
thick and on thin paper and is also 
known double printed (an uncata- 
logued variety). For the first print- 
ing of the 10 neu-groschen stamps 
thinner paper was used than for the 
two later printings. The quantities 
printed of these stamps were as fol- 
lows : 

l / 2 neu-groschen, 17,705,000 

1 17,345,000 

2 5,980,000 

3 7,880,000 
5 ' (vermilion 

and pale red ) , 200,000 
5 ' russet brown, 66,200 

5 (red brown), 823,800 

10 250,000 

There were twenty-four printings of 
the l / 2 , 1, 2 and 3 neu-groschen stamps, 
one of the russet brown 5 neu- 
groschen and three of the 10 neu- 
groschen. The number of printings 
of the other shades of the 5 neu- 
groschen seems not to be ascertain- 

Reference List. 

1855-56. No wmk. Imperf. 

7. J^ngr black on gray, Scott's No. 9. 

8. Ingr black on rose, Scott's No. 10. 

9. 2ngr black on blue, Scott's Nos. 11 or 


10. 3ngr black on yellow, Scott's No. 12. 

11. 5ngr red, Scott's Nos.13, 13a, 13b, 13c. 

12. lOngr blue, Scott's Nos. 14 or 14a. 


In March, 1861, the Prussian postal 
administration drew the attention of the 
other members of the German-Austrian 
Postal Union to the confusion which 
existed owing to the lack of uniformity 
in the colors adopted for stamps of 
corresponding values in the various 
States. It was suggested that all stamps 
of similar value, whether that value 
was expressed in schilling, grote, 
groschen or kreuzer, should be printed 
in the same color. These proposals met 
with general approval, as we have al- 
ready shown in considering the stamps 
of other States, and Saxony began 
preparations for a new issue. It had 
been decided to change the color of the 
3ngr and 5ngr stamps to black on brown 
and black on yellow respectively, when 
the appearance of the new Prussian 
stamps caused Saxony to reconsider its 
plans. The new Prussian stamps, con- 
forming to the new color scheme, were 
all printed in color on white paper and 
the Saxon postal authorities, upon in- 
vestigating the matter, decided to adopt 
the same principle and retire the colored 
papers in favor of stamps printed in 
color on white. Designs for the new 
series were invited from engravers but 
only four firms competed Hirschfeld, 
Meinhold and Sons, and Blockman and 
Son, of Dresden, and Giesecke and 
Devrient of Leipzig. The contract was 
awarded to the last named firm and the 
taille-douce process was abandoned for 
the cheaper method of typography. The 
design consisted of the Arms of Saxony 
in colorless embossing within an up- 
right oval engine-turned band with a 
scalloped outer edge. On the upper 
part of the band the name "SACHSEN" 
is shown, on the lower portion is the 
denomination and in the sides and be- 
low the Arms are oval discs containing 
the numerals of value. These are in 
color on a plain ground at the sides 
and in white on a ground of solid color 
below the Arms. The 3 pfennige and 
l / 2 neu-groschen values differ from the 
others in being enclosed within a rec- 
tangular frame in which the numerals of 
value are again shown in each of the 

The advent of the new issue was 
notified by a circular issued from Leip- 
zig on June 19th, 1863, and the stamps 
were placed on sale on July 1st follow- 
ing. The denominations were the same 
as before except that the 10 neu- 
groschen was omitted, owing to the 
small use made of that value. The- 
stamps were printed in sheets of 100 
and perforation was introduced for the 
first time, the gauge being 13. There 
are pronounced shades of all values 

and though Scott gives but two for each 
denomination (three for the 5ngr). 
Gibbons lists two for the 3 pfennige, 
three each for the l /z t 1, 2, and 3 neu- 
groschen, and five for the 5 neu- 
groschen. Specialists extend the list 
still further, especially in the case of the 
two lowest values. 

In 1867 complaints were made of the 
varying colors of the 5 neu-groschen, 
and the contractors printed some in a 
reddish lilac shade in which there 
would be fewer variations. These 
stamps were objected to, however, as 
resembling the Ingr too closely and they 
were not put on sale. Finally a grey- 
ish shade of lilac was adopted. Mr. D. 
C. Gray tells us that the quantities 
printed and number of printings were as 
follows : "There were fifteen printings 
of the 5 neu-groschen, sixteen of the 2 
neu-groschen, and seventeen of each of 
the remaining values. The quantities 
printed of these stamps were as fol- 
lows : 3 pfennige, 10,850,000 ; l / 2 neu- 
groschen, 17,100,000; 1 neu-groschen, 
15,175,000; 2 neu-groschen, 4,870,000; 3 
neu-groschen, 5,870,000; 5 neu-groschen, 
950,000; 5 neu-groschen (grey, and grey- 
lilac shades), 250,000." 

The 1 neu-groschen is known im- 
perforate vertically, and the 3pf, l /2, 1 
and 2 neu-groschen are known entirely 

The post office of Saxony was included 
in the post office system of the 
North German Confederation on Jan- 
uary 1st, 1868, and the distinctive stamps 
were consequently withdrawn. 

Reference List. 

1863. Arms in centre embossed. Perf. 13. 

13. 3pf green, Scott's Nos. 15 or 15a. 

14. y 2 ngr orange, Scott's Nos. 16 or 16a. 

15. Ingr rose, Scott's Nos. 17 or 17a. 

16. 2ngr blue, Scott's Nos. 18 or 18a. 

17. Sngr brown, Scott's Nos. 19 or 19a. 

18. 5ngr violet or grey-blue, Scott's Nos. 20, 

20a or 21. 


At the time Saxony joined the North 
German Confederation there were large 
remainders of some of the values of 
the 1863 issues and smaller lots of all 


values of 1856 and the 3pf of 1851. 
The Government made no attempt to 
dispose of these in one parcel, as was 
done by other German States, but of- 
fered the earlier issues at so much per 
stamp and the 1863 issue at a few marks 
per 500 stamps. No information seems 
to have been published as to the num- 
bers available but as late as 1890 all 
but the lOngr were obtainable at very 
low figures, though the lOngr was 
quoted at 15 marks. In 1899 the prices 

were advanced and the stamps were 
then offered as follows : 

3pf of 1851, 15 marks 

Ingrof 1856, 1 " 

2ngrof 1856, 2 

Sngrof 1856, 3 " 

Sngrof 1856, 10 

None of the ^ and 10 neu-groschen 
were then available and the only value 
of the 1863 series offered was the l / 2 ngr 
which was quoted at 6 marks per 500 


Of all the stamps issiled by what we 
now call the German States none are 
more complicated than those issued by 
the dual duchies of Schleswig and Hoi- 
stein and yet, on the other hand, none 
delineate the chequered history of a 
troublous period more clearly. The 
catalogues generally divide the stamps 
into three groups the issues for Schles- 
wig and Holstein, issues for Schleswig 
only, and issues for Holstein only. But 
though this rough and ready classifica- 
tion has some advantages it is far from 
being accurate and a collection of the 
stamps arranged by catalogue obviously 
fails to show the proper sequence of 
historical events. 

Although the stamps themselves are 
simple and straightforward in the main 
it is fortunate that they have been ex- 
tensively written up so that it is now 
possible to examine them from a his- 
torical point of view. While most of 
the articles available for reference have 
appeared in German periodicals an ex- 
cellent one from the pen of Mr. G. B. 
Duerst will be found in the Philatelic 
Journal of Great Britain for 1898 and 
from this I have drawn largely for much 
of the following information. Much 
valuable material has also been gleaned 
from an exhaustive study of the two 
first stamps, written by the veteran 
Mons. L. Hanciau. and which appeared 
in the MoiitJiIy Journal in the later 
months of 1906. 

The former duchies of Schleswig and 
Holstein, united with Lauenburg, now 
form a province of Prussia, just south 
of Denmark. The total area of the pro- 
vince is 7,273 square miles and it has a 
population of about one and a half mil- 
lions, most of the inhabitants being of 
Low German stock. 

At the dawn of history the duchies 
were inhabited by the Cimri, who were 

succeeded by the Angles, Jutes and 
Friscians; but the greater part of the 
Angles crossed over to England and 
their place was taken by the Danes. 
Then for a period of more than a thou- 
sand years Schleswig-Holstein, and 
Lauenburg, which politically belonged to 
them, were a continual bone of conten- 
tion between Denmark and Germany. 
They were continually changing hands, 
now belonging to Denmark with the 
King of that country as their Duke, then 
being ruled by a German prince, or 
sometimes independent. To give even 
a brief resume of all the happenings dur- 
ing this lengthy period of unrest would 
pccupv far too much space but I think 
it will be interesting to record the most 
important events as outlined by Mr. 
Duerst, viz. : 

The first church built on Danish 
ground was erected at Schleswig in 
850, the country evidently then be- 
longing to Denmark. In 934, however 
it was ceded to Germany, and Henry 
I established it as a separate depend- 
ency under the name of "Danish 
Mark." The Emperor, Conrad II, 
gave the country back to Denmark in 
1025. The Wendish tribes revolted 
and founded in 1066 a mighty empire 
under Kroko. This empire comprised 
Mecklenburg, Holstein, Schleswig, 
Lauenburg, Storman and Dithmar- 
schen. The Emperor, Lothair, ap- 
pointed, about the year 1230 or 1231, 
Duke Adolphus of Schauenburg, Duke 
of Holstein, whereas Schleswig was 
left with Denmark, and Lauenburg 
was given to Henry of Badewide. In 
1459, Adolphus VHI, Duke of Schles- 
wig and Holstein, died and his uncle, 
King Christian I of Denmark, (the 
first ruler of the Oldenburg line), was 
elected Duke of Schleswig and Hol- 
stein on the 5th of March, 1470, One 

of the principal clauses in the act of 
succession was "that these two coun- 
tries should be undivided forever" 
(ewich tosammende ungedeelt). About 
the year 1500, however, King John 
divided the countries again, and his 
brother, Frederic, received Tondern, 
Hadersleben, Tyle, Steinburg, Trittow, 
Oldenburg, Plon and Kiel, whereas 
King John retained Flensburg, Son- 
derburg, Norburg, Hanrove, Rends- 
burg, Haseldorf, Apenrade and Sege- 
berg, t. e. the northern portion. By 
the treaty of Roeskilde, in February, 
1865, Schleswig and Holstein were de- 
clared to be independent of Denmark. 
This treaty, however, was never car- 
ried out, and the two duchies were 
sometimes united with Denmark, and 
sometimes independent, and under the 
rule of their own dukes. In 1720 
England and France confirmed the 
conquest of Schleswig by the Danes, 
while Holstein was considered as be- 
longing to the German Empire under 
the sovereignty of their own dukes. 
At the end of the Napoleonic troubles 
both duchies were left with Denmark, 
although it had been decided' that only 
Schleswig should belong to Denmark. 
On the southern gate of Rendsburg 
there is to be found the inscription 
"Eidora Romani Terminus Imperii" 
meaning that the river Eider is to be 
the frontier of the Roman Empre, and 
the decision of dividing the two 
duchies was based on it. In 1846, the 
question arose whether Schleswig and 
'Holstein should belong to Denmark 
or not, and when the Danish Con- 
gress petitioned the King to proclaim 
that Denmark, Schleswig, Holstein 
and Lauenburg should be one united 
monarchy, the German population of 
the three latter provinces appealed to 
the German people and expressed the 
wish to be free from Denmark, and to 
become independent duchies affiliated 
with Germany. An insurrection broke 
out in 1848, but was subdued by the 
Danes in 1851, and it was not until 
1864 that the German Congress asked 
Prussia and Austria to interfere. The 
consequence of this step was the war of 
1864, which ended by Denmark ceding 
Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to 
the victors. These, however, could 
not agree altogether, sometimes the 
two duchies were governed by both, 
sometimes Schleswig by Prussia, and 
Holstein by Austria. The war of 
1866 between Austria and Prussia left 
the three duchies with Prussia. 
The currency in Schleswig and Hol- 
stein was the mark courant, of Ham- 
burg, which was divided into 16 schil- 
linge and had a value of about 28c. In 

Lauenburg the currency was that of 
Mecklenburg, in which 48 schillinge 
were the equivalent of a thaler of three 
marks, or 72c in United States money. 
The Danish money was also used, in 
which 96 skilling were equal to a rigs- 
bankdkler, worth about 54c. Four skil- 
ling Danish were, therefore, equivalent 
to 1^4 schillinge of Schleswig-Holstein 
and l l / 2 schillinge of Lauenburg. 

The first stamps issued by the duchies 
were those of the Provisional Govern- 
ment which appeared in 1850 and the last 
series appeared in 1866. Although, 
therefore, the philatelic history occupies 
the comparatively short period of six- 
teen years so many were the changes of 
government, as related in the foregoing 
historical sketch, that the stamps should 
really be considered in eight separate 
periods as follows : 

A. Schleswig-Holstein. (Provisional 
Government ; seat of government at- 
Rendsburg) Nov. 15th, 1850-Feb. 
1st, 1851. 

B. Schleswig-Holstein. (Danish Gov- 
ernment). Feb. 1st, 1851-March 1st, 

C. Schleswig. (Governed by Commis- 

sioners appointed by Prussia and 
Austria; seat of government at 
Flensburg). Feb. 20th, 1864-Janu- 
ary 24th, 1865. 

D. Holstein. (Governed by Commis- 
sioners appointed by Prussia and 
Austria ; seat of government at 
Kiel). March 1st, 1864- Jan. 24th, 

E. Schleswig and Holstein. (Governed 
by Prussia and 1 Austria combined; 
seat of government at Flensburg). 
Jan. 24th, 1865-October 31st, 1865. 

F. Schleswig, (Governed by Prussia) 

Nov. 1st, 1865-Nov. 1st, 1866. 

G. Holstein. (Governed by Austria). 
Nov. 1st, 1865-Nov. 1st, 1866. 

H. Schleswig and Holstein united with 
Prussia. Nov. 1st, 1866. 

Period A. Provisional Government of 

In 1848, the duchies of Schleswig and 
Holstein revolted from the rule of Den- 
mark and it was only after a struggle 
lasting for three years that Frederic VII 
was able to quell the insurrection. In 
spite of the constant warfare the revo- 
lutionary government, the seat of which 
was established successively at Rends- 
burg, Schleswig, and Kiel, found time 
to consider the issuing of postage 
stamps. In 1849, the Director of Posts 
was sent to Germany and Belgium to 
study postal matters in those countries 
and find out how a postal system could 
be best ad&pted to fit the needs of 
Schleswig-Holstein. The information he 

obtained was of a sufficiently satisfac- 
tory nature to induce the Department 
of Finance to propose a law for the in- 
troduction of postage stamps. This 
scheme was unanimously accepted by 
the National Assembly o'n March 26th, 
1850 and on April 3rd; following, a law 
was passed in which the chief provisions 
were as follows : 

Article 1. The Department of Fi- 
nance is authorised to have manufac- 
tured stamps or "Postschillinge," by 
the affixing of which upon letters the 
latter may be franked, in accordance 
with the directions laid down in the 
tariff of postal charges. These stamps 
are to bear the Arms of Schleswig- 
Article 2. Whoever shall 

(1) With fraudulent intent manu- 
facture ."Postschillinge" or forge them, 
and employ the forged "Postschil- 
linge" for the franking of letters, or 
cause it to be done by others; 

(2) In collusion with the author of 
the fraud, or with his assistance em- 
ploy, or cause to be employed by 
others, such "Postschillinge" for the 
franking of letters, shall be punished 
with imprisonment with hard labor, 
not exceeding five years. 

Whoever shall knowingly employ, 
or cause to be employed by others, 
for the franking of letters, imitations 
or falsifications of the "Postschillinge" 
without collusion with the author of 
the fraud or his aid, will incur a pen- 
alty of imprisonment with hard labor 
for one year. 

The above law made no mention of 
the actual values or the colors of the 
stamps it was proposed to issue but in 
the Postal Gazette for November 9th, 
1850, the public were informed of the 
forthcoming issue as follows : 

Xotice of the introduction of the 
Stamps for franking letters styled 

In execution of the law relating to 
the introduction of stamps for the 
franking of letters, etc., dated April 
2nd, 1850, Art. 1, the following in- 
structions are brought to the knowl- 
edge of the general public and or- 
dained for the compliance of the postal 
officials : 

(1) From the 15th November of 
this year there will be placed on sale 
at the postoffices stamps for the frank- 
ing of letters "Postschillinge." These 
stamps will bear the Arms of Schles- 
wig-Holstem, the inscription POST- 
SCHILLI^ T G, and. on a white ground, 
the letters S and H, and numerals de- 
noting the values represented by 

stamps in schilling of the currency of 
The franking stamps of the value of 

1 schilling are blue 

2 schilling are red 

and are pierced lengthwise by a 
blue silk thread, and are provided with 
gum on the reverse side, for the pur- 
pose of attaching them. 

(2) Only letters (not the packets 
and envelopes which belong to the 
transport post) may be franked by 
means of stamps. The franking is ef- 
fected by affixing as many "Post- 
schillinge" as amount to the charge 
under the tariff on the address side 
of the letter, in the left upper corner, 
by means of moistening the gum which 
will be found on the back of the 
stamps. Letters franked in this way 
may be deposited in the letter boxes, 
as may also unfranked letters; regis- 
tered letters should in future, as here- 
tofore, be handed in at the Postoffice 
window. In order to rend'er the post- 
al tariff more accessible to all, the lists 
of charges are posted' up at the side 
of the window and of the letter boxes, 
and copies are also for sale at all 
post-offices at 1. schilling. 

(3) In the case of letters which 
have not been sufficiently franked by 
senders, the stamps which are affixed 
to them will not be taken into con- 
sideration, bi;t the total charge must 
then be paid by the receivers. If 
more than the required charge accord- 
ing to the tariff, is paid by the stamps 
affixed, the sender will suffer the loss. 
When a stamp has been used once it 
loses its value. 

(4) None but the postal officials 
and the persons duly authorised by 
the higher postal authorities may sell 
the franking stamps. 

On the same day a further official no- 
tice was published for the instruction of 
postal officials and this is by no means 
uninteresting. Article 1 states that the 
stamps are printed "80 upon a quarto 
sheet" and that the post-offices must 
never be without a stock of stamps suf- 
ficient to last for fifteen days. It is also 
expressly stipulated that each office is 
responsible for the amount of stamps in 
its possession. Article 3 states that the 
post-offices must take care that the let- 
ters are sufficienty franked, see that the 
stamps are genuine and have not been 
used before. After this careful exami- 
nation the officials were instructed to 
obliterate the stamps (the word schwar- 
zen, "blacken," is used). Article 4 re- 
lates to the providing of each office with 

a distinctive numbered cancelling stamp. 
These numbers ran from 1 to 42. 

The set, as will be seen from the forego- 
ing official documents, consisted of but two 
denominations 1 and 2 schilling. Both 
are alike in design and show the Arms 
of the duchies of Schleswig and Hoi- 
stein together in a shield, impressed in 
plain relief, within an oval which covers 
the body of a double headed eagle with 
wings outspread. The eagle is in color 
and rests upon a horizontally lined 
ground within a rectangular frame. In 
the upper corners are small uncolored 
ovals containing the letters "S" and "H" 
respectively (these of course being the 
initial letters of the names of the two 
duchies), while corresponding ovals in 
the lower angles contain the numerals of 
value. Above the central oval is 
"POST" and below is "SCHILLING" 
these inscriptions extending over the 
eagle and being in large uncolored capi- 
tals. The Arms of Schleswig described 
in the orthodox heraldic manner are 
"Or, two lions passant, or Beopardy, 
azure," while those of Holstein are 
"Gules, a triangular escutcheon argent, 
coupe gules, supported at each side by 
three half leaves of holly argent, and 
accompanied by three Passion nails of 
the same, placed at even distances so 
that their points appear to pierce the 
angles of the escutcheon." 

The dies were engraved on steel by 
M. Claudius, of Altona, and the stamps 
were printed at the works of Messrs. H. 
W. Kobner and L. Kuhl, of that city, in 
color on white wove paper, the Arms 
in the centre being in relief. 

The stamps were printed in sheets of 
eighty, in ten rows of eight, upon "Dick- 
enson" paper with a blue thread running 
vertically through each stamp. Owing 
to imperfect feeding of the paper in the 
printing press the silk thread does not 
always appear in the centre of the stamps 
as was intended, but may frequently be 
found at one of the sides. This paper 
was obtained from the same manufac- 
turers that supplied similar paper for the 
Bavarian stamps. 

A variety of the 2sch is recorded with 
a dot after the numeral "2" in the right 
lower corner but what its position was 
in the sheet I am unable to say. A die 
and plate for a 3 schilling stamp was 
also preoared but this was never used. 

The dies were finished by M. Claudius 
and the blocks necessary for the print- 
ing plates were ready by October 20th, 
1850. As a precaution against counter- 
feiting somewhat elaborate methods 
were used in manufacturing these 
stamps and on this point I cannot do 
better than quote from the excellent de- 

scription provided by M. Rosenkranz 
viz : 

The stamps were separated from 
one another by a space of 1 mm., and 
were produced by three successive 

The sheet first received an impres- 
sion from a plate of 80 cliches of an 
underprint, of an Eagle in light blue 
or light red according to the value. 
This Eagle was engraved on steel, and 
from the original die two lots of 
eighty cliches were prepared and ar- 
ranged together in the form in which 
the stamps would appear on the sheets, 
thus making up two plates, one for 
the blue stamps and one for the red, 
or 160 cliches in all. 

The second die contained the de- 
sign of the stamp, and as the same 
Eagle appears again upon this, the 
Eagle was transferred to a steel die 
in such a way that the impression 
from the second plate should fit ac- 
curately upon that of the first. This 
die was etched, and upon it were en- 
graved the lines of the background 
and the inscriptions 'POST' and 
'SCHILLING,' while the four small 
ovals in the corners were left blank. 
Then 160 cliches were produced from 
this steel die and were made up into 
plates of eighty, and finally there were 
engraved upon each cliche the letters 
'S' and 'H' in the upper ovals and the 
figures '!' or '2' in the lower. There 
are thus eighty different types of each 
of the tzvo values. These additions 
were made by means of punches, 
which impressed the outlines of the let- 
ters and figures into the comparative- 
ly soft metal of the cliches, and the 
surrounding parts of the ovals were 
then cut away, for the differences are 
recognizable but exceedingly minute. 
I have never seen an entire sheet, but 
I have examined some fairly large 
blocks of stamps which enable me to 
affirm that this engraving was not 
done upon a few cliches made from 
the original die, and then the remain- 
ing cliches produced by reduplicating 
these matrices, but that the engraving 
was done separately upon each of the 

* * * * 

Although excellent " register was 
kept in the printing, close examination 
shows that here and there the colour 
of the first printing appears at one 
side or the other of the central oval. 

The third printing produced the em- 
bossed Arms in the oval in the center. 
The Coat of Arms was* engraved in 
relief on a slightly convex steel die, 
and from this eighty brass cliches 

were struck, which were burnished 
and then arranged in a plate for the 
embossing. The steel die in relief 
was made somewhat convex as other- 
wise the central design would not im- 
press itself sufficiently clearly in the 
brass cliches. All the stamps, both 1 
and 2 schilling, were embossed with 
the same plate. The Arms are not 
always set exactly in the middle of 
the oval ; at times they are too much 
to the right or left. Even in the 
case of unsevered copies the position 
of the Arms within the oval is not 
always the same ; it must therefore 
be supposed that when the brass 
cliches were soldered together, suf- 
ficient care was not taken in their 
exact arrangement. 

The printers were under contract to 
furnish two millions of stamps in all 
and these were supplied in four con- 
signments as follows : 
Nov. 1, 185080,000 Isch, 40,000 2sch 
Nov. 25. 185020,000 Isch, 20,000 2sch 
Dec. 24, 1850100,000 Isch, 100,000 2sch 
Feb. 14, 18511,100,000 Isch, 540,000 2sch 

Altogether, therefore, 1,300,000 of the 
1 schilling blue were printed and 
700,000 of the 2 schilling rose. The cost 
of the dies, matrices, and other materials 
required was 1,000 marks (about $290), 
while the charge for printing, pressing, 
gumming and packing was lOsch per 
1,000 which amounted to 1,250 marks or 
about $360.00. 

Although so many stamps were 
printed, a comparatively small number 
were sold and of these not all seem to 
have been used. According to the offi- 
cial records stamps to a total face value 
of 1,599 marks 2 schilling were sold 
and 8,701 letters were franked with 
the stamps. This accounts for the 
greater rarity of these stamps in used 

Reference List. 
Nov. 15th, 1851. Silk thread paper. Imperf. 

1. Isch blue, Scott's No. 1 or la. 

2. 2sch rose, Scott's No. 2 or 2a. 

of l/10sch would be necessary, before 
these could be issued the insurrection 
was suppressed by the Danes. The Pro- 
visional Government was dissolved on 
February 1st, 1851, and a law was passed 
on April 18th following according to 
which Danish postage stamps were to be 
used in the duchies. The revolutionary 
stamps were, however, permitted to be 
used until the end of August when the 
large remainders were sent to Copen- 
hagen, together with the dies, plates and 
all postal documents. No special stamps 
were used during this period of Danish 

Period B Danish Government. 

Although the Provisional Government 
passed a law amending the postal rates 
under which new stamps of the value 

Period C Schleswig; Governed by Com- 
missioners appointed by Aus- 
tria and Prussia. 

Schleswig and Holstein being re- 
garded as belonging to the German Con- 
federation, the Congress of Frankfurt 
in 1863 authorised Austria and Prussia 
as the two principal German powers to 
force Denmark to evacuate the two 
duchies. Denmark refused to be co- 
erced and the war of 1864 resulted. 
Denmark was badly defeated and 
the two duchies thus fell into the hands 
of the victors. The allied forces 
of Austria and Prussia occupied Flens- 
burg on February 7th, 1864, and no 
time was lost in superseding the Danish 
postage stamps. A notice was published 
from Flensburg on March 14th, 1864, an- 
nouncing the issue of a 4sch stamp for 
Schleswig, viz : 

To replace the postage stamps in- 
scribed in the Danish language hither- 
to employed in the Duchy of Schles- 
wis:, new postage stamps with the in- 
WIG" (Duchy of Schleswig) will be 
put into circulation. The post offices 
in the Duchy of Schleswig will at 
first sell only stamps of the value of 
4 schillinge printed in rose on white 

Shortly afterwards this notice was 
followed by another announcing the is- 
sue of the l^sch stamps on the follow- 
ing April 1st. The reason for the issue 
of the two stamps is that the first of 
them was in Danish currency, and was 
objected to on that account. The new 
one in Hamburg currency was at once 
ordered to take its place ; but not being 
ready in time the 4sch stamp was is- 
sued and continued in use for only six- 
teen days. This value is consequently 
much the scarcer used. 

Both stamps were manufactured at 
the State Printing Works in Berlin, and 
are similar to each other in design. 
Tin's shows the numerals of value in 

large figures on an upright oval ground 
of solid color. This is enclosed within 
an engine turned oval band inscribed 
and "SCHILLINGE" (for the 4sch) or 
"SCHILLING" (for the l^sch) at the 
base. The stamps were embossed in 
color on white wove paper and were 
printed in sheets of 100 arranged in ten 
rows of ten. 

For some unexplained reason Gibbons' 
catalogue gives 1865 as the date of issue 
of these two stamps. 

Reference List. 
1864. No wmk. Rouletted 11%. 

3. 4sch carmine, Scott's No. 13. 

4. IJ^sch green, Scott's No. 9. 

Period D Holstein; Governed by Com- 
missioners appointed by Prus- 
sia and Austria. 


On February 18th, 1864, the following 
notice was issued from Kiel by the 
joint Commissioners of Austria and 
Prussia relating to the issue of new 
stamps : 

From the first of the following 
month new stamps can be obtained at 
all post offices in the Duchies of Hol- 
stein and Lauenburg. These new 
stamps will be printed like those in 
use at present in blue, and of the 
value of 1^4sch courant or 4sch Dan- 
ish currency. 

From the same date Danish stamps 
cannot be used any longer for the 
franking of letters in both Duchies. 
All post offices are hereby instructed 
to forward to headquarters at the be- 
ginning of next month all such stamps 
they may have in stock. 

All persons having such stamps in 
their possession and wishing to ex- 
change same for new stamps, must ap- 
ply to the post offices before the first 
of next month. 

The design of the new stamps ob- 
viously owes its inspiration to the 1853 
design for Denmark. In the center is 
a circular uncolored space containing the 
value "VA SCHILLING CRT." in 

three lines. This is enclosed within a 
square frame having posthorns in each 
of the four corners. In the frame are 
the letters "HRZGL" at the left; 
"POST" at the top; and "FRM" at the 
right. This is an abbreviation for "Her- 
zogliche Post Freimarke" meaning "Du- 
cal Postage Stamp." At the bottom of 
the frame is "4 S. R. M." i. e. "4 Skil- 
ling Reichs Miinze" (4 skilling Reichs 
Mark or Danish currency). The span- 
drels are filled with wavy lines. 

The stamps were lithographed by 
Kobner and Co., of Altona, in sheets of 
100 in ten rows of ten. Before printing, 
the paper was covered with an under- 
print of wavy lines, of a grayish color, 
in metallic oxide which only becomes 
visible by chemical action. The fumes 
of sulpheretted hydrogen will cause the 
under-print to show. In the upper mar- 
gin the inscription "HERZOGLICHE 
POST FREIMARKEN" appears in 
the wavy lines and in the central portion 
of each stamp a capital "P" was also 
left clear of the under-print. There are 
three types of this stamp, printed from 
different stones, which appeared in the 
order in which they are described, viz : 

Type I. The wavy lines in the span- 
drels are close together ; the lettering 
is small and there are periods after the 
letters at the sides; and "SCHILLING" 
is in large type. 

Type II. The wavy lines in the span- 
drels are coarser and farther apart ; the 
lettering is larger and there are periods 
after the letters at the sides; and the 
word "SCHILLING" is in small type. 

Type III. The wavy lines in the 
spandrels are similar to those of Type 
II ; the lettering is still larger and thick- 
er and there are no periods after the 
letters at the sides ; and "SCHILLING" 
has no dots above the two letters "I." 

The stamps were printed on white 
wove paper and they were issued in im- 
perforate condition, though both types 
I and III are known rouletted. As the 
rouletting was, however, entirely unoffi- 
cial the philatelic interest of these vari- 
eties is slight. 

Reference List. 

March 1864. Imperforate. 
5. Ij^sch blue (three types), Scott's Nos, 
15, 16, or 17. 



Early in April, 1864, another official 
notice was issued from Kiel to the ef- 
fect that, as the duchies of Holstein and 
Lauenburg formed a territory of the 
German-Austrian Postal Union, the 
stamps would have to be altered and in- 
stead of being inscribed with an equiva- 
lent value in Danish currency they 
would have the value denoted according 
to the currency of Lauenburg. To give 
a little more time to get rid of the stock 
in hand of the former issue, the stamps 
of the new issue were not placed in 
circulation until about the end of May, 

The design is somewhat similar to 
that of the preceding issue, but the num- 
erals of value in the center are much 
larger and double-lined. Also, instead 
of being confined within a circle the 
value is in a square frame with "SCHIL- 
LING CRT." in an upturned curve be- 
low and with small ornaments in each 
of the angles. In the right hand side 
of the frame the lettering, indicating 
Freimarken, now consists of "F R M R 
K," thus balancing the five letters on the 
opposite side. At the base the inscrip- 
tion reads "lJ/ S L M" (Schilling 
Lauenburg Miinze), that is "schilling 
of Lauenburg currency." The under- 

(dated March 31st, 1865) stated their 
further use would not be permitted. 

Reference List. 

May 1864. Lithographed, Rouletted 8. 
blue, Scott's No. 18. 

print, consisting of a pattern of diagonal 
lines, is in pink and, as in the previous 
stamps, the letter "P" shows in the 
centre of each stamp clear of the under- 
print. The stamps, like the former is- 
sue, were lithographed in sheets of 100 
by Kobner and Co., of Altona. They 
are rouletted in line about 8. In pay- 
ment of postage to foreign countries 
this stamp is considered the equivalent 
of 1 silbergroschen, although the sil- 
bergroschen was really worth 1^ schil- 

The local rate at Altona and Kiel was 
y$ schilling and as no stamp of this 
value was provided for the use of the 
public an official edict was published on 
November 22nd, 1864, permitting the 
]^sch stamp to be cut into halves, diag- 
onally, and each portion then served for 
the prepayment of the local rate. These 
bi-sected stamps are, therefore, quite 
legitimate provisionals. They were al- 
lowed to be used for a period of about 
four months until an official notice 

Period E Schleswig and Holstein: 

Governed by Prussia and 

Austria Combined. 

In the year 1865, prior to the Conven- 
tion of Gastein, stamps were issued un- 
der the authority of Austria and Prus- 
sia for the whole territory comprised 
in the duchies. One of the chief rea- 
sons for this step was that of finance, 
considerable economy being effected by 
having one instead of two postal ad- 
ministrations. At ' the same time the 
head office was removed to Flensburg, 
this place being considered the most 
centrally situated. 

The first stamp to appear bore the 
facial value of l /& schilling. This stamp, 
like those previously issued for Schles- 
wig, was manufactured at the State 
Printing Works, in Berlin. The design 
is similar to the Schleswig stamps of 
1864 but with the upper inscription al- 

and the lower one to "SCHILLING." 
The stamps were printed in sheets of 
100, in ten rows of ten, upon white 
wove paper, and were rouletted in line 
about IV/2. This value was intended 
for local letters and superseded the 
split stamps which had been allowed to 
be used previously. It was issued on 
February 22nd, 1865. 

On June 1st, following, another value 
of similar design but of the value of 
1^4 schilling was issued. 

The IJ^sch, not being the exact equiv- 
alent of 1 silbergroschen, a decree was 
published on August 5th, 1865, author- 
izing the issue of l^sch stamps the 
exact value of a silbergroschen. It was 
stated, at the same time, that for the 
future this value must be "affixed to all 
letters addresed to places within the 
German-Austrian Postal Union. This 
stamp differs a little from the two pre- 
ceding values for the whole of the value 
is now denoted in the center, viz : \ l /z 
SCHILLING (=lsgr). This occupies 
three lines and in the lower part of 
the inscribed band a star takes the place 
of the word "SCHILLING." 

On the 30th of June, 1865, the duchies 
concluded a convention with Denmark 
fixing the rate on single letters to that 
country at 2 schilling. This led to the 
issue of another stamp, similar in de- 
sign to the ^asch, but with a large 
numeral "2." in the center. 


In September, 1865, another addition 
to the set was made a 4sch stamp being 
issued as representing the 3 silbergrps- 
chen rate within the German Austrian 
Postal Union. This is similar in de- 
sign to the l^sch and shows the value 
in schilling and its equivalent in silber- 
groschen in the central oval. 

Reference List. 

1865. No. wmk. Rouletted Iiy 2 . 

7. J^sch carmine, Scott's No. 3. 

8. IJ-^sch green, Scott's No. 4. 

9. l^sch lilac, Scott's No. 5. 

10. 2sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 6. 

11. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 7. 

Period F Schleswig Governed by 

Shortly after the issue of the 4sch 
of the last series disagreements arose 
between Prussia and Austria. These 
were patched uo and resulted in the 
Convention of Gastein by the terms of 
which Schleswig was awarded to Prus- 
sia, while Austria received Holstein and 
Lauenburg. The natural result was 
that separate series for the two duchies 
were again required. It was also in- 
tended to issue special stamps for 
Lauenburg but this fell through as 
Prussia purchased this territory from 
Austria for $1,411,250 and amalgamated 
it with Schleswig. 

The new stamps for Schleswig were 
issued on November 1st, 1865, the de- 
nominations being exactly the same as 
those previously in use. The designs 
were similar to those of the Schleswig- 
Holstein issue of 1865 but with the up- 
per inscription altered to "HERZOGTH. 

These stamps, like those of the pre- 
ceding series, were manufactured at the 
State Printing Works in Berlin. They 
were printed in sheets of 100 on white 
wove paper, and were rouletted 1154. 

The l^sch varies considerably in 
color being found in numerous shades 
of lilac, mauve and purple, and also in 
an almost pure grey. 

Reference List. 

Nov. 1st, 1865. Rouletted 11^. 

12. i^sch green, Scott's No. 8. 

13. l^sch lilac, Scott's No. 10 or lOa. 

14. l^sch rose, Scott's No. 11. 

15. 2sch ultramarine, Scott's No. 12. 

16. 4sch greybrgwn, Scott's No. 14, 

Period G Holstein: Governed by Aus- 


Co-incident with the issue of separate 
stamps for Schleswig a separate series 
was also issued for Holstein. An offi- 
cial notice, dated from Kiel, October 
5th, 1865, informed the public that the 
series heretofore in common use in both 
duchies would be replaced by a new 
series on November 1st following and 
that thereafter only the new stamps 
would be accepted for postal service 
within the Duchy of Holstein. 

The values in the new set corre- 
sponded with those previously in use 
and were also similar to those in the 
series provided for Schleswig. The 
five values fall into two types: the l / 2 , 
\ l /4 and 2sch being of one design and 
the l l /3 and 4sch of another. 

In the first of these the numerals of 
values are shown in the center on an 
oval of solid color while the inscrip- 
tions on the surrounding frame are in 
white letters on a colored ground. 
These inscriptions are "HERZOGTH. 
HOLSTETN" in the upper part, and 
"SCHILLING" in the lower, small stars 
separating them from each other. 

The design for the 1^ and 4sch is 
exactly like that employed in the previ- 
ous series for the combined use of the 
duchies, the value in the center having 
its equivalent value shown in silber- 

The dies were engraved by M. Claud- 
ius and the stamps were printed in 
sheets of 100 by Messrs. Kobner & Co. 
of Altona. They were printed on white 
wove paper and were rouletted 8. The 
stamps were embossed but the relief is 
very poor and much inferior to the 
stamps of similar type printed by the 
State Printing Works, Berlin. 

Reference List. 

Nov. 1st, 1865. Rouletted 8. 

17. '/2sch pale green, Scott's No. 19. 

18. l^sch pale mauve, Scott's No. 20, 

19. l^sch carmine, Scott's No. 23. 

20. 2sch pale blue, Scott's No. 21. 

21. 4sch bistre, Scott's No. 25, 


The design of the stamps with in- 
scriptions in white on color did not 
meet with the approval of the ^author- 
ities though they accepted them. When, 
however, new supplies of the 1J4 and 2 
schilling were required in March and 
August, 1866, respectively, the opportun- 
ity was taken of changing the design. 
In this second issue, therefore, the in- 
scriptions are in color on an engine 
turned band. These values were not em- 
bossed, though, like the similar values 
of the first issue, they were printed by 
Messrs. Kobner and Co. The stamps 
were printed in sheets of 100 on white 
wove paper and though normally roul- 
letted 8 both values may be found rou- 
letted 7. 

Reference List. 

1866. Typographed. Rouletted 8. 
22. l l / 4 sch mauve, Scott's No. 22. 
2::. 2sch blue, Scott's No. 24. 

Period H. Schleswig and Holstein 
United with Prussia. 

The division of the duchies between 
Austria and Prussia did not entirely 
allay the difficulties between the two 
and after a time strained relations en- 
sued and ultimately war resulted. The 
war was of short duration and by the 
Treaty of Prague, of August 23rd, 1866, 
Prussia had control of both duchies. 
Xo special stamps were issued, how- 
ever. For a time each duchy used its 
own special stamps as described above, 
and then, on November 5th, 1866, a 
circular was issued from the postal de- 
partment notifying that the stamps of 

both duchies could be used indiscrimi- 
nately. The remaining stocks of the 
joint issue for the two duchies (as de- 
scribed under Period E) were also put 
into circulation again. When formal in- 
corporation with Prussia was completed 
on December 24th, 1866, the stamps of 
that State were likewise available for 
use anywhere within the duchies so 
that from that time, until the stamps of 
the North German Confederation were 
issued on January 1st, 1868, the inhabi- 
tants of Schleswig and Holstein had 
ample choice as to the kind of stamps 
they might use. 


When the special stamps were super- 
seded by the general issue for the North 
German Confederation a small stock of 
most values of the series for Schles- 
wig and Holstein as well as of the issue 
for the combined use of both duchies 
remained and these were later acquired 
by M. Moens. The quantities of the 
several varieties were as follows: 

Schleswig, 1864 Issue. 
\ schilling 173. 
4 schilling 21,000. 


Schleswig-Holstein, 1865 Issue. 
1 A, 1%, V/3, 2 and 4 schilling, 20,000 of 


Schlesivig, 1865 Issue. 

20,000 2sch, 20,000 

Ij4sch, 20,000 4sch, 20,000 
l^sch, 20,000 

Holstein, 1865 Issue. 

^sch, 1,000 I 2sch, 13,000 

l^sch, none 4sch, 20,000 

7,000 I 


The kingdom of Wurtemberg lies be- 
tween Baden and Bavaria and touches 
Switzerland (Lake of Constance) on 
the south. It entirely surrounds Hohen- 
zollern, in which state, as well as in 
Baden, it owns several enclaves. Its 
total area is 7529 square miles and it 
has a population of about three millions. 
It is drained for the most part by the 
Neckar and its tributaries, while the 
Danube crosses the country towards the 
south. The most striking geographical 
feature is the Swabian Alb, the most 
characteristic portion of the South Ger- 
man Jura. The Black Forest borders 
the kingdom on the west. On the whole 
the surface lies high (3000 to 1500 feet), 
the greater part belonging to one or 
other of the German plateau systems; 
but there are many valleys, all of great 
fertility. Agriculture is the principal 
industry; wine and fruit are produced 
in large quantity; and market gardening 
is actively pursued at Stuttgart, Ulm, 
Heilbronn and elsewhere. Iron and 
salt are mined and there are numerous 
mineral springs scattered over the whole 
kingdom. There is a good deal of man- 
ufacturing industry of a varied char- 
acter, the more important branches pro- 
ducing iron, gold, and silver goods, 
cutlery, fire-arms, machinery, scientific 
and musical instruments, chemicals, 
prints and books, confectionery and beer. 
The capitol of the kingdom is Stuttgart. 

The bulk of the people (69 per cent.) 
are Protestants ; the Roman Catholics, 
who have a bishop at Rottenburg, 
amount to 30 per cent., and there are 
about 12,000 Jews. The state university 
is at Tubingen, and there is a polytech- 
nical high school at Stuttgart. Educa- 
tion stands at an exceptionally high gen- 
eral level, even for Germany; there is 
not a single individual in the kingdom 
over ten years of age who is unable to 
read and write. Wurtemberg has four 
votes in the Federal Council, and re- 
turns seventeen deputies to the Imperial 
Diet. The Wurtemberg troops consti- 
tute the 13th Army Corps of the German 
Army, having a total strength of about 
24,000. The king is a hereditary consti- 
tutional sovereign and he is assisted by 
two houses of parliament. The national 
receipts and expenditures balance at 
about $17,500,000 per annum, while the 
national debt, nearly all incurred for 
railways, stands at about $110,000,000. 

The territory now called Wurtemberg, 
then occupied by the Suevi, was con- 
quered by the Romans in the first cen- 
tury, A. D. In the third century it was 
settled by the Germanic Alemanni and 

they, in turn were subdued by the 
Franks. In the 9th century it was in- 
corporated in the duchy of Swabia, Ul- 
rich (1241-65) being the first count. In 
1495 the reigning count was made a 
duke of the empire. Duke Frederick II, 
(1797-1816) on going over to the French 
was rewarded with 850 square miles of 
new territory and an addition of 125,000 
subjects, as well as the dignity of Elec- 
tor (1802). In Napoleon's war against 
Austria (1805) he sided with the French, 
and his troops fought with them down 
to 1813 ; in return for which he acquired 
the kingly title and an increase of terri- 
tory which more than doubled the num- 
ber of his subjects. Throwing in her 
lot with Austria in 1866, Wurtemberg 
was beaten at Konniggratz and Tauber- 
bischofsheim, and her king (Charles, 
1864-91) was compelled to purchase 
peace from Prussia at the cost of an 
indemnity of $4,000,000. 


From an early period the postal service 
of Wurtemberg was, with some inter- 
ruptions, in the hands of the princely 
House of Thurn and Taxis, but by an 
agreement dated March 22nd, 1851, the 
Government of Wurtemberg liberated 
itself by purchasing the postal privileges 
from July 1st of that year for the sum 
of 1,300,000 florins (about $525,000). It 
then proceeded to form its own adminis- 
tration and to join the German-Austrian 
Postal Union, established by the conven- 
tion of April 6th, 1850. As one of the 
provisions of this convention required 
the adoption of postage stamps, prepara- 
tions were immediately made for pro- 
viding them, and by a notice of October 
7th, 1851, the public were informed that 
stamps of 1, 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer would 
be on sale at the various post offices on 
the 12th of that month, and that their 
use would commence from the 15th of 
the same month. In design these stamps 
are very similar to those of Baden, is- 
sued a few months earlier. All values 
were printed in black on colored papers, 
the design, common to all, mainly fea- 
turing large numerals to denote the re- 
spective denominations. In December, 
1856, the numeral design was suppressed 
in favor of a new one showing the 
Arms of the kingdom. The values were 
the same as before with an 18kr stamp 
in addition, and all were printed in color 
on white paper, the paper containing 
orange colored silk threads like the 


"Dickinson" paper employed in Great 
Britain. In June, 1858, the stamps be- 
gan to appear on plain white wove paper, 
without silk threads, while about No- 
vember, 1859, perforation was^ intro- 
duced. The next change, occurring in 
February, 1861, was a somewhat minor 
one affecting the paper which was much 
thinner than before. In 1862, the 1, 3, 6 
and 9 kreuzer were issued with a per- 
foration gauging 10 instead of 13^ as 
before, while in 1863-64 all denomina- 
tions appeared in new colors conform- 
ing to the color scheme adopted by the 
German-Austrian Postal Union. In 1865 
the 1, 3 and 6kr were issued with roulette 
instead of perforation, the 9kr followed 
in 1867 and the 18kr in 1868 and in the 
latter year a new value, 7kr, also 
rouletted, was added to the series. In 
1868 the Government decided to abandon 
the typographic embossing process as it 
was foui.'d too expensive, especially in 
the case of the lower denominations. 
Ordinary typographic printing was 
adopted and with the new process a new 
design was introduced. In this the main 
theme was a large numeral in the cen- 
ter, to denote the value, surrounded by 
suitable inscriptions and ornamentation. 
A post office notice, dated November 
27th, 1868, stated that from January 1st, 
1869, the new 1, 3 and 7kr stamps would 
be issued according as the stocks of the 
former issues were exhausted. On May 
3rd, 1869, another value of 14kr was 
added to the series ; on December 1st, 
1872, a 2kr stamp was issued ; and on 
January 15th, 1873, another stamp of the 
value of 9 kreuzer appeared. About the 
same time a 70 kreuzer stamp of the 
type of 1856 was issued, the object of 
which was to prepay heavy letters. 
Towards the end of 1874 the system of 
rouletting the stamps ceased, a new per- 
forating machine, with a gauge of 11 
by 11 y 2 , having been purchased. The 
only stamps of the 1869-73 series per- 
forated by this machine were those of 
the 1 kreuzer, which was issued in No- 
vember, 1874, as before it was necessary 
to print any of the other denominations 
the design was altered. 

In 1874 it was decided to change the 
currency, which up to then was that of 
the florin of 60 kreuzer, to the Imperial 
currency of marks and pfennige, and 
January 1st, 1875, was decided on as the 
date upon which the change should take 
effect. A Post-office Notice dated De- 
cember 23rd, 1874, announced that a 
stamp of 20 pfennige of a new design 
would be issued on the following Jan- 
uary 1st to ' take the place of the 7 
kreuzer, as soon as the stock of that 
value in the various post offices was ex- 
hausted. Prominent numerals are again 

the chief feature of the design but in 
place of "WURTTEMBERG," the in- 
scription is "K.WURTT.POST". On 
May 28th, 1875, a further notice from 
the post office announced the discontin- 
uance of the kreuzer series from the 1st 
of July following and the issue of a 
new series with values in pfennige. The 
new stamps were 3, 5, 10, 25 and 50 
pfennige and 2 marks, the latter taking 
the place of the 70kr stamp. The 50pf 
as originally issued was printed in grey 
but by virtue of an agreement made 
with the Imperial Post Office at Berlin, 
its color was changed to grey-green in 
February, 1878. In November, 1881, a 5 
mark stamp was added to the series, this 
being similar in design to the rest of the 
set except that the central portion was 
uncolored and the numeral of value was 
printed in this space in black by a second 
operation. On January 1st, 1883, a 
similar change in the color of the num- 
eral was extended to the 2 mark stamp. 
Early in 1890 the colors of the 3, 5, 25 
and 50pf stamps were changed and in 
1893 a further addition was made to the 
series by the issue of a 2 pfennige stamp. 
In 1900 two new values 30 and 40 pfen- 
nige respectively were issued, these be- 
ing like the mark denominations with 
the numerals in black on a plain ground. 
On April 1st, 1902, the kingdom of Wur- 
temberg ceased the issue of its own 
separate stamps, those for the German 
Empire superseding them. 

In addition to its stamps for ordinary 
use, Wurtemberg has issued Municipal 
Service and Official stamps, both these 
special series still continuing in use. 
The Municipal Service stamps were first 
issued in July, 1875, there being two de- 
nominations, 5 and 10 pfennige. The 
first of these was for use on the official 
correspondence of municipalities, irre- 
spective of weight, and the lOpf was 
for use on money orders and parcels. 
In 1880 the color of the 5pf was changed 
from mauve to green. In 1897 a change 
in the postal rates led to the issue of a 
3pf stamp and in 1900 other regulations 
led to the issue of 2 and 25 pfennige 
values. In 1906 all five values were 
overprinted with the dates "1806-1906," 
surmounted by a crown in commemora- 
tion of the centenary of Wurtemberg's 
being raised to a Kingdom. In 1906-7 all 
five values were printed on paper water- 
marked with a design of crosses and 
circles and at the same time 20 and 50 
pfennige values were added to the set. 

Until April 1st, 1881, the correspond- 
ence of the ministerial offices was con- 
veyed free of charge, but on the sup- 
pression of this privilege a series of 
stamps of special design was issued for 
use on official correspondence. The 

values at first issued were 3, 5, 10, 20, 25 
and 50 pfennige, but in 1882 a 1 mark 
stamp was added. In 1890 the colors of 
the 3, 5 and 25pf and 1 mark were changed 
to conform with those of the regular 
series. The color of the 50pf was also 
changed shortly afterwards and in 1900 
a 2pf stamp was added to the set. In 
1903, 30 and 40 pfennige stamps were 
issued in colors corresponding to those 
of the ordinary stamps of 1900, while in 
1906 all denominations were overprinted 
in a similar manner to the Municipal 
Service stamps. During 1906-7 all de- 
nominations appeared on the new paper 
watermarked with circles and crosses. 


The Government of Wurtemberg ob- 
tained control of its own postal service 
in 1851 when, as I have already shown 
in my preceding notes, it was purchased 
from the Prince of Thurn and Taxis. 
The first series of stamps consisting of 
1, 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer values were placed 
on sale to the public on the 12th Octo- 
ber, 1851, though their use for postal 
purposes did not commence until three 
days later. In April, 1852, a new de- 
nomination 18 kreuzer was added to 
the set and as the design is similar to 
that of the lower values, all can best be 
treated as one set. To quote the late 
Mr. W. A. S. Westoby: "The resem- 
blance between the stamps of the first 
series of Wurtemberg and those of the 
first series of Baden is so remarkable as 
to leave no doubt that the Government 
of Wurtemberg availed itself of the re- 
sults of the investigations made by that 
of Baden previously to the issue of the 
first series for this latter State, on May 
1st, 1851. The dies were similarly con- 
structed, the inscriptions were similar, 
mutatis mutandis, and the stamps were 
printed on colored paper. The matrix 
die was composite, the numeral of value 
in the center being within a frame, al- 
most square, of 9^ mm. placed angle 
upwards within a frame measuring ex- 
ternally 22^ by 22 mm. and internally 
15^2 by 15 mm. and carrying the follow- 
ing inscriptions on tablets : In the upper 
one, running the whole width, was 
'Wurttemberg,' and on a similar tablet at 
the foot was 'Freimarke/ with an orna- 
ment at each end resembling a vine 
branch with the two bunches of grapes, 
the lower one of which was incomplete. 
On the tablet on the left side was'Deutsch- 
Oestr. Postverein,' and on another on 

the right side 'Vertrag v. 6 April 1850. 
These were set up in movable type, the 
upper and lower ones in ordinary Ger- 
man lower case characters with capital 
initials, and those on the sides in diamond 
type, as in those of Baden. The spaces 
between the rectangle carrying the num- 
eral of value and the inner line of the 
frame were filled in with arabesque or- 

The design is similar for all values 
with the exception of the central portion 
carrying the numerals. In the case of 
the 1 and 6 kreuzer the background is 
composed of lines running parallel to 
the sides of the rectangle making a de- 
sign of small squares; in the 3 kreuzer, 
the ground consists of small ovals; in 
the 9 kreuzer the ground is composed 
of small circles resembling lace work; 
while on the 18 kreuzer the background 
is formed of horizontal lines. 

The dies were engraved at the Mint 
in Stuttgart, where the electrotypes com- 
posing the printing plates were also 
made. The printing was done under the 
direction of the post office, in typo- 
graphic presses, the sheets consisting of 
sixty stamps arranged in ten rows of six. 
All denominations were printed in black 
on colored papers. The paper was ob- 
tained locally and while it is always wove, 
it varies considerably in thickness and 
most values provide numerous shades. 
The stamps were all issued imperforate. 

Mr. Westoby tells us that, "It may be 
noted that occasionally one or both of 
the full stops are wanting after the 'v' 
or the '6' in the inscription in the right 
tablet of the 3 kreuzer, and there is a 
difference in the position of the stop 
after the word 'Postverein' in the left 
tablet. The first of these is probably 
due to imperfections in the moulds from 
which the electrotypes were made, while 
the second points to the making of new 

Mr. Robert Ehrenbach, writing in the 
London Philatelist for August, 1893, 
points out that differences in the posi- 
tion of the period after "Postverein" 
may be found in all values except the 
18kr. There are three types in all. In 
Type I the period is between the second 
and third points of the zigzag lines of 
the border; in type II it is exactly over 
the second point; and in type III it is 
exactly above the third point. All three 
types are found on the 3 kreuzer, types 
I and II are found in the 1, 6 and 9 
kreuzer, while the ISkr is known only 
with the first type. Whether the varie- 
ties are found side by side on the same 
sheet or are the distinguishing points 
of separate plates we are not told. 

20 ii r H r m b erg. 

crcnce List. 

1851-52. Imperf. 

1. Ikr black on buff, Scott's No. 1. 
L'. :;kr black on yellow, Scott's No. 2 or 3. 
:;. t;kr black on green, Scott's No. 4 or 4a. 
4. !>kr black on rose, Scott's No. f> or fia. 
.".. iskr black on lilac, Scott's No. 6. 


Although it is obvious that the design 
of Wurtemberg's first stamps was in- 
spired by the numeral series for Baden, 
it was not long befoie more original 
ideas prevailed and an entirely new 
series of stamps was issued. The new 
design shows the Arms of the kingdom, 
with supporters and motto, embossed 
in colorless relief on a ground work 
of color covered with white horizontal 
loops. This is contained within a rec- 
tangular frame, measuring 22^ mm. 
square, which is inscribed "FREI- 
MARKE" at the top and with the value 
on each of the other three sides. The 
inscriptions are all in Roman capitals 
and the design is completed by the ad- 
dition of small six-rayed stars in each 
of the angles. An excellent description of 
the Arms design appeared in Gibbons' 
Stamp Weekly for September 5th, 1908, 
which I cannot do better than repro- 
duce : 

In 1817, King William of Wur- 
temberg simplified the Arms of the 
kingdom, the proper arms of the royal 
house having become too complicated 
through additions at various times. 
The arms now consist of an oval 
shield divided into two parts or fields, 
surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves, 
in gold, surmounted by a gold helmet 
bearing a royal crown. 

The two fields are: 

On the right, for Wurtemberg, three 
stag's antlers, in black, placed one 
upon the other, on a golden field; the 
upper antlers having each four points, 
the lower one but three. These are 
the original arms of the counts of 
Wurtemberg, and have reference to 
their office of Hereditary Grand 

On the left, for Swabia, three blaJc 
lions, one above the other, also on a 
golden field; the lions have their 
tongues hanging out of their mouths, 
and their right paws are raised. These 
are the three lions of Hohenstauffen, 
and were only added to the arms of 
Wurtemberg in 1806 by King Fred- 
erick, in memory of the famous fam- 
ily of Hohenstauffen, which, in for- 
mer times occupied the country which 
now forms Wurtemberg. 

The supporters of the shield are, 
on the right, a black lion bearing a 
golden crown; and on the left, a 
golden stag. The proper colors for 
the ribbon bearing the motto are 
purple with a black reverse, and the 
motto itself, in gold letters, reads 
"Furchtloss und treie," i. e. "Fearless 
and true." 

The design is the same for all de- 
nominations, varying only in the desig- 
nation of value. The dies were en- 
graved and the electrotypes made at the 
Mint in Stuttgart. The printing form 
for each value consisted of sixty elec- 
trotypes, arranged in ten rows of six, 
which were separated as a rule by a 
space of only Y^ mm. 

The paper varies considerably in thick- 
ness and that at first employed con- 
tains orange colored silk threads similar 
to the "Dickinson" paper, found in con- 
nection with some of the early British 
stamps. These silk threads were so 
placed that they traversed the stamps in 
a horizontal direction, one thread being 
apportioned to each horizontal row of 
stamps. This paper was apparently ob- 
tained from Bavaria. 

The values in this new series corre- 
sponded exactly to those previously in 
use, the set being issued on Sept. 22nd, 
1857, according to Mr. Westoby, Mr. 
Ehrenbach, and other writers on the 
subject. In the Monthly Journal some 
few years ago a copy of the 9kr was 
reported with cancellation dated Dec. 
30th, 1856, and on the strength of this 
Gibbons' catalogue assigns the date De- 
cember, 1856, to the whole series. This 
seems particularly slender evidence on 
which to antedate the whole issue by 
some nine months for the cancellation 
might easily have been an error for 
1857. We should like to hear of other 
early dated specimens before accepting 
1856 as the correct date of issue. 

Most of the stamps of this set vary 
in shade but these variations are not 
very striking being, as a rule, confined 
to pale and deep tints. 

Reference List. 

Sept., 1857 (?). Silk thread paper. Imperf. 

6. Ikr brown, Scott's No. 7, 8 or 8a. 

7. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 9 or 9a. 

8. 6kr green, Scott's No. 10 or lOa. 

9. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 11 or lla. 
10. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 12 or 12a. 


If we accept the date of September, 

1857, as correct for the second issue the 
use of the silk-thread paper lasted but 
a very short time for in June, 1858, 
the stamps began to appear on white- 
wove machine made paper, without 
threads. This paper is usually fairly 
thick but, like that of the preceding is- 
sue, it varies in texture. The sheets 
contained sixty stamps as before but the 
electrotypes were re-arranged so that 
the spaces between them varied from 
\ l / 2 mm. to 1^4 mm. 

An interesting variety of the Ikr of 
this issue is described in the Monthly 
Journal for September, 1904, viz : 
"Mr. Giwelb has shown our publishers 
a copy of the 1 kreuzer with a clear im- 
pression on the back reading the right 
way. Probably a sheet that was defec- 
tive in some part of the impression was 
passed through the press again, for the 
sake of economy, but it is not the silk 
thread paper. The specimen is post- 
marked Stuttgart, 1 Jun 1867." 

The stamps of this issue are almost 
exactly like the corresponding stamps on 
the silk thread paper and variations in 
shade are of little consequence with the 
exception of the Ikr. This value exists 
in two very striking shades of brown 
one being yellowish and the other al- 
most a black-brown. 

Reference List. 

1858. Without silk threads. Imperf. 

11. Ikr brown, Scott's No. 13 or 14. 

12. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 15 or 15a. 

13. 6kr green, Scott's No. 16 or 16a. 

14. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 17 or 17a. 

15. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 18 or 18a. 

tion machine was ordered from Vienna 
on the joint account of the postal ad- 
ministrations of Baden and Wurtemberg 
and this was set up at Carlsruhe. This 
machine was of the harrow type and 
was capable of perforating an entire 
sheet of 100 stamps at one operation, 
its gauge being 13^. Although the 
machine was primarily intended for use 
on sheets of 100 stamps those of 
Wurtemberg remained the same as be- 
fore, i. e. sixty impressions in ten rows 
of six. Some of the perforated values 
began to be circulated in November, 
1859. The paper, color, and arrange- 
ment of the cliches remained as before. 

Reference List. 

1859-60. Thick paper. Perf. 13 Y 2 . 

16. Ikr brown.Scott's No. 19. 

17. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 20 or 20a. 

18. 6kr green, Scott's No. 21. 

19. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 22. 


The next change, though it affected 
all the values, was a somewhat minor 
one. It was found that the paper was 
a little too thick for easy working in 
the perforating machine and, beginning 
with February, 1861, a much thinner 
paper was employed. The Ic of this 
series exists in a number of distinct 
shades ranging from a palish brown to 
an almost black-brown. The 3kr and 
18kr differ in tint a little, while the 9kr 
is found in two colors. The original 
shade was rose, similar to that of the 
preceding issues, but early in 1862 the 
color was changed to a dull purple or 

Imperforate specimens are known of 
all values but it is considered doubtful 
that any were ever issued for use in 
this condition though postally used 
specimens are known. Mr. Westoby 
ascribes the existence of these imperfo- 
rate varieties to "the difficulty attendant 
on two administrations using the same 
perforating machine." 



Reference List. 

Thin paper. Perf 13^. 

Ikr brown, Scott's No. 23 or 24. 

21. 3kr yellow, Scott's No. 25 or 25a. 

22. 6kr green, Scott's No. 26. 

23. 9kr rose, Scott's No. 27. 

24. 9kr purple. Scott's No. 28. 

25. 18kr blue, Scott's No. 29 or 29a. 


In describing the stamps of Baden I 
mentioned that in July, 1859, a perfora- 


During the second quarter of 1862, it 
became necessary to overhaul the perfo- 
rating machine and it was provided with 

a new set of punches having a gauge of 
ten, instead of Y6 l / 2 as before. Stamps 
with the new perforation began to ap- 
pear about June, 1862, and all except 
the 18kr were issued by the end -of the 
year. The 18kr in blue does not exist 
with the 10 perforation, as plenty of the 
13^2 perforation remained in stock and 
by the time more were required, the 
color was changed. The 9kr is known 
in carmine as well as the more usual 
purple. These were probably due to one 
or more imperforate sheets of the pre- 
ceding issue, having been found and 
perforated after the gauge of the ma- 
chine had been changed. 


ere nee List. 

Type as before but perf. 10. 

Ikr brown, Scott's Xu. :;. 
L'7. Mkr yellow, Scott's No. Ml or Mia 

kr green, Scott's Xo. Ml.'. 
LI i. !kr purple, Scott's No. 33. 



The German-Austrian Postal Union 
had adopted a regulation under which 
all the members of the Union agreed to 
use the same colors for their 3, 6 and 
9 kreuzer stamps. An order of the 
Minister of Finance of Wurtemberg, 
dated September 12th, 1862, directed, 
therefore, that to conform with this 
regulation the stamps would for the 
future be printed in green for the 1 
kreuzer, in rose for the 3 kreuzer, in 
blue for the 6 kreuzer, in brown for the 
9 kreuzer, and in orange for the 18 
kreuzer. The issue in the altered colors 
was to have taken place on October 1st, 
1862, but as there were large stocks of all 
values in the old colors still on hand, it 
was decided to use these up first. Con- 
sequently, the new varieties appeared at 
various times as follows : the 1 kreuzer 
in February, 1863, the 3 and 9 kreuzer 
in June, 1863; and the 6 and 18 kreuzer 
in June, 1864. The paper and perfora- 
tion were as before. All values except 
the 18kr exist in a number of different 
shades. Mr. Ehrenbach mentions a 
minor variety of the 3 kreuzer which is 
probably worth looking for, viz : has 
a prominent flaw in the upper right 
corner a large red spot on a ground 
of white instead of the usual white star 
on a colored ground. 

Reference List. 

1863-64. New Colors. Perf. 10. 

30. Ikr green, Scott's Xo. M4. M4a or M.". 
Ml. Mkr rose, Scott's Xo. MO or MOa. 
ML'. Ckr blue, Scott's No. 37 or 37a. 
MM. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 38, 39 or M9a. 
M4. ISkr orange, Scott's No. 4O. 


With the increasing use of postage 
stamps the Wurtemberg Government 
found considerable inconvenience and 
delay was occasioned by having to send 
them to Carlsruhe to be perforated and 
this inconvenience became so great in 
time that the administration at Stuttgart 
ordered a machine from Berlin for 
rouletting the stamps in line, similar to 
the Prussian stamps of 1861. This 
machine was set up in August, 1865, 
and the first stamps rouletted by it were 
delivered in October following though 
it was not until June, 1866, that the issue 
of the 1, 3, and 6 kreuzer was made; 
and these were followed by the 9 kreuzer 
in March, 1867; and by the 18 kreuzer 
in February, 1868. The electrotypes all 
appear to have been re-set and the dis- 
tance between the stamps is now 2 mm. 

On November 23rd, 1867, an agree- 
ment was made with the North German 
Confederation by which the 2 silber- 
groschen rate was raised from 6 to 7 
kreuzer. The Wurtemberg public were 
informed of this change by means of a 
post-office notice dated April 2nd, 1868, 
and at the same time it was stated that 
6, 9, and 18 kreuzer values would cease 
to be manufactured though they would 
continue available for postage purposes 
till the stocks were exhausted. The 
color chosen for the new value was 
blue though it was of a darker color 
than that used for the superseded 6kr 

Reference List. 
1865-68. Types as before. Rouletted 10. 

35. Ikr green. Scott's No. 41. 

36. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 42 or 42a. 

37. 6kr blue, Scott's No. 48. 

38. 7kr deep blue, Scott's No. 44 or 44a. 

39. 9kr brown, Scott's No. 45, 45a or 45b. 

40. ISkr orange, Scott's No. 46. 


The typographic embossing method of 
production was found to be very ex- 
pensive, especially in the case of the low 
denominations, and in 1868 the Govern- 
ment decided to abandon it in favor of 
ordinary typographic printing. That a 
considerable saving would be effected by 
the new method is conclusively shown 
from the statement that while it cost 1 
kreuzer to produce 22 stamps by the 
embossed process 46 stamps could be 
produced for the same sum by the plain 
typographic process. On November 27th, 

1868, a Post-office circular was published 
giving notice that from January 1st, 

1869, stamps of a new design of 1, 3, 
and 7 kreuzer would be issued accord- 
ing as the stocks of the former series 

were exhausted. The actual date of is- 
sue of these values is not known. On 
May 3rd, 1869, another value of 14 
kreuzer was issued in the same design, 
and on December 2nd, 1872, a 2 kreuzer 
value was added to the set. Early in 
1873 the rate for single letters sent to 
England, France, or the United States 
by way of Bremen or Hamburg was 
fixed at 9 kreuzer and on January 15th 
a stamp of "this value was issued corre- 
sponding in design to the other denomi- 
nations then current. 

The design is the same for all six 
values and shows large uncolored 
shaded numerals in the centre on a 
ground of crossed lines, within an up- 
right oval with a band of oak leaves 
around the edge. Around this is an 
oval band of horizontal lines inscribed 
"POST" at the left, "FREI" at the top, 
and "MARKE" on the right, while there 
is a small posthorn at the bottom. The 
various inscriptions are separated by 
small ornamental scrolls. Surrounding 
this is another inscribed oval band con- 
taining, on an uncolored ground, the 
name "WURTTEMBERG" at the top 
and the value in words at the base, the 
two inscriptions being separated by 
small crowns. In the spandrels are 
small shields containing three lions in 
the upper left and lower right corners 
and stag's horns on the others. 

The die was engraved at Stuttgart, as 
in the case of the previous issues, the 
stamps being printed in sheets of sixty, 
in ten rows of six, on plain white wove 
paper. The printing was heavy, conse- 
quently the design is generally found 
deeply indented in the paper. The 
stamps were rouletted with the machine 
used for the preceding series. 

Reference List. 

1869-73. Rouletted 10. 

41. Ikr green, Scott's No. 47 or 47a. 

42. 2kr orange, Scott's No. 48 or 48a. 
48. 3kr rose, Scott's No. 49. 

44. 7kr blue, Scott's No. 50. 

45. 9kr bistre, Scott's No. 51 or 51a. 

46. 14kr orange, Scott's No. 52 or 52a. 


On January 1st, 1873, a stamp bearing 
the fiscal value of 70 kreuzer and in 
the Arms type of 1857 made its appear- 
ance. The object of this high denomi- 
nation, as shown by a post office notice 

of December 24th, 1872, was to prepay 
heavy letters. Its use was confined to 
the three chief post-offices of the king- 
dom situated at Stuttgart, Ulm, and 
Heilbron, and the stamp was not per- 
mitted to be sold to the public. Any 
letters requiring these high value stamps 
could be posted at other offices, when 
they were forwarded under official cover 
to one of the three above named offices, 
and then franked with the 70kr stamps. 
The design of this value is exactly 
similar to that of the series of 1857, 
except that there is an exterior border 
fopied of small dots. The stamps were 
printed in sheets of six, two horizontal 
rows of three, on white wove paper and 
were not perforated. In the top margin 
is an inscription in black referring to 
the price of each stamp and the total 
value of each sheet, viz : 

6. St. Postfreimarken zu 70kr.=F1.1.10. 

=2 Mk. 
Ztisammen im Werthe von 7 Fl.=4 Thl. 

=12 Mk. 

Two plates were used for printing 
these stamps differing chiefly in the ar- 
rangement of the dotted border. Whether 
both plates were used concurrently or 
at separate times does not appear to be 
known for certain, though probably the 
former was the case if Mr. Ehrenbach's 
statement that postmarks of the same 
dates are found on stamps from both 
plates. Mr. Ehrenbach gives the best 
description of the differences between 
the two plates, viz : 

(1) The dark shade (believed by 
most people to be the first plate). 
The dimensions of the little black 
dotted frame running round the 
stamps is 79^2 mm. horizontally, and 
53 vertically. They are only divided 
from each other by a single line of 
little black dots. The stamps are 3^4 
mm. apart from one another. In the 
inscription over the top row there is 
no stop after the word "Mk.", and 
the two little lines (denoting equal to) 
between 70kr, 1F1, 10, etc., are only 
Y$ mm. wide. 

(2) The light shade. The Arms 
in the stamps are more embossed, the 
stamps show a somewhat clearer im- 
pression. The dimensions of the 
outer border are 77 mm. by 52 mm. 
The stamps are likewise printed 3^4 
mm. apart, but two dotted lines (M to 
1 mm. apart) divided the stamps in- 
stead of one only. In the black in- 
scription on the top there is a stop 
after "MK.", and the lines (equal to) 
are 1^2 mm. wide. 

Reference List. 

1873. Embossed. Imperf. 

47. 70kr violet, Scott's No. 53 or 53a. 



Towards the end of 1874 the perfo- 
rating by rouletting ceased as the Gov- 
ernment purchased a new perforating 
machine having a gauge of \l l / 2 by 11. 
The only value of the kreuzer series 
perforated by this machine was the Ikr 
which was issued in November, 1874. 
Before it was necessary to print further 
supplies of any of the other values the 
design was changed and though speci- 
mens are known with this perforation 
they are fraudulent productions. 

Reference List. 
1874. Perf. 11^x11. 

48. Ikr green, Scott's No. 54. 


In 1874 it was decided to change the 
currency, which up to that time had 
consisted of the florin of 60 kreuzer, 
similar to that of the other States of 
south Germany, to the Imperial cur- 
rency of marks and pfennige, and Jan- 
uary 1st, 1875, was fixed as the date for 
the change. A notice, dated December 
23rd, 1874, was issued by the Post-office, 
stating that a stamp of 20 pfennige of a 
new design would be issued on that day 
to take the place of that of the 7 kreuzer, 
just as soon as the stocks of the latter 
value held in the various post-offices 
were exhausted. 

The design shows uncolored numerals 
on a circular ground of lines crossing 
each other diagonally, above which, on 
a curved scroll is "K. WURTT. POST", 
while on a similar scroll below, the 
value is shown in words. On the left 
is a shield containing three stag's horns 
and on the right are three lions in a 
similar shield. The whole is enclosed 
by an ornamental rectangular frame 
measuring 21 by lS l / 2 mm. 

The die was engraved and the print- 
ing plates were constructed at the Mint 
in Stuttgart and the printing was done 
under the direction of the Post-office as 
in the case of the preceding issues. As 
the new currency was a decimal one a 
change in the size of the plates was 
made and the stamps were printed in 
sheets of 100 arranged in ten rows of 
ten. They were perforated bv the new 
machine gauging 11^ by 11. 

On May 28th, 1875, the Post-office is- 
sued another notice announcing that 
from July 1st next the former series 
of stamps in kreuzer would be entirely 
superseded by a new series with values 
in pfennige. These, it was stated, would 
be on sale at the various post offices on 
June 15th. and that after August 15th 
the stamps with values in kreuzer would 

cease to be, valid , for , postal use. 'The 
new denon)inatldns' co-as4stetT i pf y 3,*5,'10, 
15, 25, and, 53 ^flfannige/ a^at stfrjlftr 
type to the 20pf already described. J At* 
the same time the color of this latter 
value, which had hitherto been printed 
in blue, was changed to ultramarine. 

About the same time a 2 marks stamp 
of similar type was issued in place of 
the 70 kreuzer. Its sale was prohibited 
to the public and its use was at first 
confined to the offices of Stuttgart, Ulm, 
and Heilbronn, though later it was ex- 
tended to almost every post office in the 
kingdom. Notwithstanding this pro- 
hibition the stamp was frequently sold 
to the public, as appears from a post- 
office circular of August 18th, 1879, and 
in November of that year the stamp 
was printed in vermilion on orange 
colored paper, and on the back "un- 
verkauflich" (not to be sold) was printed 
in ultramarine. 

The 50pf was at first printed in grey 
but in February, 1878, consequent on 
an agreement made with the Imperial 
Post-office at Berlin, its color was 
changed to grey-green. 

All values exist in a number of more 
or less striking shades and specialists 
will also find that most of them exist 
with yellow and white gum, the latter 
representing the later printings. 

Reference List. 

1875-79. Perf. 

49. 3pf green, Scott's No. 55 or 55a. 

50. 5pf violet, Scott's No. 56. 

51. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 57. 

52. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 58a. 

53. 20pf ultramarine, Scott's No. 58. 

54. 25pf brown, Scott's No. 59. 

55. 50pf grey, Scott's No. 60. 

56. 50pf grey-green, Scott's No. 61. 

57. 2mk orange, Scott's No. 62. 

58. 2mk vermilion on orange, Scott's No. 


On November 1st, 1881, a 5 mark 
stamp was issued and though this was 
chiefly intended for telegraphic purposes 
it was also available for postal use. 
The design was similar to that of the 
preceding series except that the central 
circular portion was uncolored, and the 
numeral of value was printed on it in 
black by a second operation. This value 
was reported with central numeral in- 
verted some years ago and though the 


error is listed in Scott's^- catalogue I 
cannot -fthcT that its px?$tehcf was ever 

auttienj jcAted: , " 

On' January 1st, 1883, the 2 mark 
stamp was also issued with value in 
black on an uncolored ground. The 
value is known in two distinct shades 
and is also known imperforate, a sheet 
having been accidentally issued in this 

Reference List. 

1881-83. Perf. 11^x11. 

59. 2 marks orange and black, Scott's No. 

64 or 64a. 

60. 5 marks blue and black, Scott's No. 65. 


Early in the year 1890 the colors of 
the 3, 5, 25, and 50 pfennige values were 
changed to conform with those of the 
corresponding denominations of Ger- 
many, while in 1893 a new value, 2 
pfennige, was issued. The design and 
perforation remained exactly as before. 
The 5pf is said to exist imperforate. 

Reference List. 

1890-93. Perf. 

61. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 66. 

62. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 67. 

63. 5pf green, Scott's No. 68 or 68a. 

64. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 69 or 69a. 

65. 50pf red-brown, Scott's No. 70 or 70a. 


In 1900 the set was enriched by the 
addition of 30 and 40pf values. The 
design was exactly like that of the other 
values of the series, but, like the mark 
denominations, the numerals of value 
were printed at a second operation in 
black on a plain ground. These were 
the last stamps issued by Wurtemberg 
for general use for in 1902 its postal 
system was united with that of the Im- 
perial government. A paragraph in 
Alfred Smith's Monthly Circular re- 
ferred to the matter as follows : 

An agreement has been concluded 
between the Imperial Postal Adminis- 
tration and that of Wurtemberg by 
which the postal systems are to be 
united for a definite period of four 
years from April 1st, 1902, after 
which it will be subject to a notice of 

one year on either side. On the date 
mentioned the separate issues of each 
country will give place to a uni- 
fied series inscribed "DEUTSCHES 

Reference List. 

1900. Perf. 11^x11. 

66. 30pf orange and black, Scott's No. 71. 

67. 40pf rose and black, Scott's No. 72. 


With the exception of a few stamps 
issued by Bavaria in 1908 for the use 
of Railway Officials Wurtemberg is the 
only German State that has issued a 
regular series of official stamps. These 
fall into two classes those for general 
use and those for the use of municipali- 
ties. The latter class, known as Mu- 
nicipal Service stamps, was first issued 
on July 1st, 1875, for use on the official 
correspondence of municipalities within 
the kingdom of Wurtemberg. The rate 
of postage was fixed at 5 pfennige ir- 
respective of the weight of the letters. 
A stamp of this value printed in mauve 
like the ordinary 5pf stamp then cur- 
rent was issued in a special design. 
In the centre is a diamond of solid color 
on which a large "5" surrounded by 
shown. Around this is a lozenge shaped 
band inscribed "PORTO PFLIGHTIGE 
DIENST SACHE" meaning "Service 
matter liable to postage." In each of 
the four angles are small oval shields 
showing three stag's horns on their left 
and three lions on their right hand 
sides. The design is completed by a 
thick frame line. These stamps, like 
those for ordinary use, were printed in 
sheets of 100, the dies and plates being 
manufactured at the Mint in Stuttgart 
and the printing taking place under the 
supervision of the Post-office. Imperfo- 
rate specimens are known of this 5pf 
stamp. A lOpf stamp of similar design 
was issued about the same time for use 
on parcels and money orders. 

In 1890 the color of the 5pf was 
changed to green to conform with the 
change of color in the corresponding 
value of the ordinary set. Several dis- 
tinct shades of this variety may be 

On January 10th, 1897, a new value 
of 3 pfennige in brown was issued and 
in 1900 a 2pf in grey and a 25pf in 
orange appeared. The design of all 
three was similar to that of the first 5pf. 

In 1906 all five denominations were 
overprinted with a crown above the 
dates "1806-1906" in commemoration of 
the centenary of Wurtemberg's being 
raised to the dignity of a Kingdom. 


In 1906 some of the values began to 
appear on paper watermarked with a 
multiple device of crosses and circles 
and by the following year all values 
had appeared on this new paper and 
two new values 20 and 50 pfennige 
were also issued. The stamps on this 
watermarked paper were printed by the 
German Imperial Printing Office, at 
Berlin, and apparently the plates for 
the two new values were also made in 
Berlin. These stamps are still in use 
for the agreement between the Imperial 
Administration and that of Wurtem- 
berg regarding the unified series of 
stamps affected those for public use 

Reference List. 

1875-1900. Perf. 11^x11. 

66. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 218. 

67. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 215. 

68. opf mauve, Scott's No. 201. 

69. 5pf green, Scott's No. 216 or 217. 

70. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 202. 

71. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 220. 

1806 - 1906 

1906. Overprinted in black. Perf. 

72. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 224. 

73. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 226. 

74. opf green, Scott's No. 228. 

75. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 229. 
7>. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 233. 

1906-7. Wmk. Crosses and circles. Perf. 

77. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 238. 

78. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 239. 
70. 5pf green, Scott's No. 240. 

80. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 241. 

81. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 253. 

82. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 242. 

83. 50pf lake, Scott's No. 254. 


Until April 1st, 1881, the correspond- 
ence of the ministerial offices was con- 
veyed free of postage, but at that time 
the privilege was taken away and a 
series of special stamps was issued for 
use on all official correspondence. M. 
Moens described their issue as follows: 

Official stamps for franking cor- 
respondence connected with the busi- 
ness of the State, churches, schools, 
and public benevolent institutions were 
issued, in part, on the first of April 
last, in terms of a decree, dated 26th 
March, 1881, of the Ministry of 
Churches and Schools. Article 3 of 
this Decree sets forth that "Delivery 
of these stamps shall be made against 
printed acknowledgments of their re- 
ceipt upon forms to be furnished by 
the post-office department. At the 
end of every month the post-office 
authorities shall prepare a statement 
of number of receipts in their pos- 
session for stamps issued, and shall 
submit it to our Department for ex- 
amination and payment." 
The values at 'first issued were 3, 5, 
10, and 20 pfennige and these were fol- 
lowed on April 18th by 25 and 50 
pfennige. The colors correspond to 
those of similar denomination of the 
ordinary series then current. The de- 
sign, which is the same for all, shows 
uncolored labels on all four sides and a 
fifth one crossing the centre of the 
stamps obliquely from the left lower to 
the right upper corner. The labels at 
the sides are inscribed "K. WURTT." 
at the left, "*POST*" at the top, 
"PFENNIG" at the right, and the value 
in words at the bottom. The diagonal 
label contains the words "AMTLICHER 
VERKEHR" meaning "Official Busi- 
ness." On each side of the central 
label are escutcheons, containing the 
.numerals of value, resting on an orna- 
mental background. 

In 1882 a new value of 1 mark printed 
in yellow was added to the series. 

In 1890 the colors of the 3, 5, and 
25pf were altered to conform with those 
of the ordinary stamps and at the same 
time the color of the 1 mark was 
changed to violet. Shortly afterwards 
the color of the 5pf was also altered 
and in 1900 a 2pf stamp was added to 
the series. 

In 1903 30 and 40 pfennige stamps 
were issued and these, like the ones for 
ordinary use were printed at two opera- 
tions with the value in each case in 

In 1906 all ten values were overprinted 
in a similar manner to the Municipal 
Service stamps in commemoration of the 
hundredth anniversary of Wurtemberg's 
existence as a kingdom, and in 1906-7 
all denominations were issued on the 
watermarked paper used for the Mu- 
nicipal Service stamps of the same date. 
These latter were printed in Berlin by 
the German Imperial Printing Office and 
they are still in use. 


Reference List. 

1881-82. Perf. 11^x11. 

84. 3pf green, Scott's No. 203. 

85. 5pf mauve, Scott's No. 204. 

86. lOpf rose, Scott's No. 205. 

87. 20pf blue, Scott's No. 206. 

88. 25pf brown, Scott's No. 207'. 

89. 50pf grey-green, Scott's No. 208. 

90. Imk yellow, Scott's No. 209. 

1890-1903. Perf. 

91. 2pf grey, Scott's No. 219. 

92. 3pf brown, Scott's No. 210. 

93. 5pf green, Scott's No. 211. 

94. 25pf orange, Scott's No. 212. 

95. SOpf orange and black, Scott's No. 221. 

96. 40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 222. 

97. SOpf red-brown, Scott's No. 213. 

98. Imk violet, Scott's No. 214. 




. 115. 

Overprinted in black. Perf. 

2pf grey, Scott's No. 224. 

3pf brown, Scott's No. 225. 

5pf green, Scott's No. 227. 
lOpf rose, Scott's No. 230. 
20pf blue. Scott's No. 231. 
25pf oran?e, Scott's No. 232. 
SOpf orange and black, Scott's No. 234. 
40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 235. 
50pf red-brown, Scott's No. 236. 

Imk violet, Scott's No. 237. 

Wmk. Crosses and circles. Perf. 

2pf grey, Scott's No. 243. 

3pf brown, Scott's No. 244. 

5pf green. Scott's No. 245. 
lOpf rose, Scott's No. 246. 
20pf blue, Scott's No. 247. 
25pf orange, Scott's No. 248. 
30pf orange and black, Scott's No. 249. 
40pf carmine and black, Scott's No. 250. 
50pf red -brown, Scott's No. 251. 

Imk violet, Scott's No. 252. 


Few stamps have been more reprinted 
than the first three issues of Wurtem- 
berg, and few Governments have shown 
greater docility in supplying enterprising 
dealers and collectors, to order, with 
supplies of the stamps in every abnor- 
mal color that could be desired by the 
most morbid imagination. The so- 
called reprints of the first issue are, in 
fact, nothing better than official counter- 
feits. None of the printing plates were 
in existence when these imitations were 
made in 1864, nor were the dies, except 

the central portions and the frames 
without the inscriptions. These latter 
were, therefore, set up again, and small 
plates constructed consisting of six or 
twelve electrotypes. In the imitations 
the letters of "Wurttemberg" and 
"Freimarke" are smaller than in the 
originals, the letter "W" is 1 l / 2 mm. 
from the left side-line of the label in- 
stead of 1 mm. as in the genuine, and 
the lower bunch of grapes in each of the 
two ornaments in the lower tablet are 
complete whereas in the originals they 
are not complete. These "reprints" 
should hardly confuse the most inexperi- 
enced collector. Mr. Westoby tells us 
that "In 1865 a further printing was 
made on paper of various thicknesses, 
and of all the colors of the rainbow. 
The printing seems to have been special- 
ly confined to the 1 kreuzer, though the 
other values are recorded as . existing. 
The reprinting was made on the condi- 
tion that the reprints should not be used 

In 1864 all the values of the Arms 
series were reprinted and some of these 
are apt to prove rather confusing. 
None of the original "Dickinson" paper 
with orange thread used for the stamps 
of 1857 remained in stock and though a 
supply of silk-thread paper was obtained 
from the Bavarian Administration the 
color of the thread was different, being 
red. The 6kr is known with yellow 
thread and various values in fancy 
colors are reported as existing with 
green silk thread. The color of the 
thread, therefore, is sufficient test in 
detecting whether the specimen is an 
original or a reprint. The detection of 
the reprints on paper without silk thread 
is a more difficult matter for the colors 
of the originals were very closely copied 
and there is no appreciable difference 
in the paper. The original plates of 
1857 did not exist, however, so that the 
plates employed for the rouletted stamps 
current at the time the reprints were 
manufactured were evidently used. On 
these the stamps were much more wide- 
ly spaced than in the originals, the dis- 
tance between the stamps measuring 
about 2 mm. instead of Y^ mm. as in the 
genuine. In the case of pairs, there- 
fore, the reprints are at once distin- 
guishable and specimens with unduly 
large margins may also be condemned 
without hesitation. 

None of the later issues were re- 



The following interesting letter is 
self explanatory: 
My dear Mr. Poole : 

Surely no reader of MEKEEI/S WEEK- 
LY has enjoyed more than I, your ex- 
cellent article on the stamps of Berge- 
dorf; and as I feel sure that the article 
will be reprinted in pamphlet form for 
easy reference, will you allow me to 
furnish a few corrections, which I trust 
you will accept in the spirit in which 
they are made, viz. : in the interest of 
Philately, whose ardent followers we 
both are. It is true, I was a mere boy 
at the time the stamps of Bergedorf 
were issued, still as the P. O. was on 
the ground floor of the house my father 
occupied with his family, I was in and 
out of the office whenever out of school, 
helping in a boyish way and very much 
interested in everything that went on 
there, and even in those days I was a 
stamp collector. In fact when my father 
went to Hamburg to see Mr. Fuchs to 
confer about stamps for Bergedorf, he 
took with him my collection (stamps 
pasted flat in a copy book no printed 
albums then) to discuss designs and 
colors. I remember distinctly telling 
him to beware of such stamps as the 
then current ikr Austria, which under 
artificial light could hardly be distin- 

I pass over your description of how 
Bergedorf became finally the property 
of Lubeck and Hamburg jointly, for to 
go into a description like I find in a 
Chronicle of Bergedorf, issued there in 
1894 and a copy of which is before me, 
would be taking too much time and 
space, and I will come at once to the 
postal history as I find it recorded 
there and of part of which I have per- 
sonal knowledge. 

The Counts of Thurn and Taxis, who 
held the postal privilege in Germany 
for centuries, tried to open a P. O. 
there in 1788, but it was discontinued 
almost at once, as it had been estab- 
lished without the consent of the Senates 
of Lubeck and Hamburg. In 1838 a 
Prussian P. O. was established there 
with my father as postmaster, he being 

sent there by the Prussian Minister of 
Posts, which lasted until March 31st, 
1847 ; Prussia having notified the au- 
thorities that it desired to terminate its 
contract. The completion of the railway 
from Hamburg to Berlin doing away 
with the necessity to convey as hereto- 
fore the mails by postchaise. On April 
1st, 1847, the P. O. was opened under 
the auspices of the Government of the 
two cities L. and H., and remained in 
that way until December 31st, 1867, 
when in its place, it became a part of the 
North German Postal Confederation and 
finally, in 1870, part of the Imperial Ger- 
man Post. 

I have not with me the article written 
by me in the Virginia Philiatelist, but 
think I explained in it how Bergedorf 
was governed by a delegation of the 
Senates of both Lubeck and Hamburg, 
called in Bergedorf the "Visitation" to 
whom, in the week which they spent 
each summer in Bergedorf, all matters 
were referred to for adjustment, consti- 
tuting as it were a court of last resort, 
so the report you mentioned as being 
made in 1859 was to them and nothing 
further was done that year, than to 
order the preparation of stamps for se- 
lection and one sheet of each value was 
struck off. In 1860 the visitation did 
nothing further about the adoption of 
stamps for Bergedorf, but when they 
were there again during the summer 
of 1861, it was ordered that stamps 
should be issued, but the colors of the 
half and the three shilling did not please 
them and they were ordered to be 
printed in the colors as described in 
the order of October, 17th, 1861. 

In urging the issuing of stamps and 
to show how they would appear when 
on letters, there were cut from each of 
the five sheets printed, a block of six 
and each block pasted on a large sheet 
of blank paper, and I think the original 
block of six of the half shilling is now 
in the Postal Museum in Berlin. Those 
found in Lubeck's archives are evidently 
a similar set probably furnished by my 
father to the Lubeck delegates in 1860, 
and I have no doubt if Hamburg's ar- 


chives were searched, a like find would 
be made there. The time from mid- 
summer 1861 to November 1st, 1861, was 
necessary to have the stamps printed, 
for I am sure that up to that time only 
one sheet of each denomination had 
been furnished to my father by Mr. 
Fuchs in Hamburg, who had the con- 
tract to lithograph the stamps. 

You judge from the wording of the 
last paragraph in the report of 1859, 
that there must have been a Danish P. 
O. in Bergedorf, but there never was. 
Danish stamps of the value of four skil- 
lings (Scott's 7 and 9) had been sold 
at the Bergedorf P. O. for a number of 
years for the reason that Denmark, 
recognizing the usefulness of having 
mail matter prepaid by stamps, made 
a difference in the rates of prepaid by 
stamps and prepaid in cash or unpaid let- 
ters, for while a letter from Bergedorf 
to the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein 
and Lanenburg (not Luxemburg as 
you have it, and Oldenburg must also 
be a mistake as that never belonged to 
Denmark) then under Danish Dominion 
as well as Denmark proper, when pre- 
paid by stamps cost only 1% schilling 
currency, if prepaid in money or sent 
unpaid cost two schillings. The stamps 
were furnished by the Royal Danish P. 
O. in Hamburg. 

I see that you have the signature of 
my father misplaced under the decree of 
October 17th, 1861. Nothing should be 
after the (signed) Paalzow. There was 
no Imperial Post in existence at that 
time so he could not well have been a 
Director of Post. It belongs, however, 
under the letter to Mr. Moens, March 
29, 1873, for then he was Director of 
Imp. Post and former Postmaster of the 
L. H. office in Bergedorf. 

Another misprint is in naming the 
Vierlande. You enumerate, Neuen- 
gramm, Altengramm which should both 
be spelled without r, viz. : Neuengamm, 

Then you speak about the issuance of 
stamps in Lubeck and Hamburg, Janu- 
ary 1st, 1859, and continue that, "shortly 
after these labels appeared letters posted 
in the Bergedorf district were required 
to be prepaid with Hamburg stamps." 
This is incorrect, for while it is a fact 
that a very few Hamburg stamps have 
been used in Bergedorf at that time, 
their use was never officially sanctioned 
and there was no requirement for even 
prepayment of any correspondence. 

Having explained how all matters con- 

cerning Bergedorf were settled by the 
"Visitation" throws light upon the last 
paragraph of my father's letter to Mr. 
Moens. As your translation reads: 
"The pourparlers and discussions were 
never exchanged directly between the 
Bergedorf authorities and myself, and 
were mostly carried on verbally, which 
shows that there can be no documents 
on this subject." To make it clear 
there should be added after exchanged 
"in writing" and after myself instead of 
"and" should be "but," for it is a fact 
that all conferences on the subject of 
issuing stamps were only held during 
the time the "Visitation" was in Berge- 

Your mention of the fact that the 
obliterating stamp was also acquired by 
Mr. Moens leads me to add one little 
piece of information, which may be of 
use to some one who has Bergedorf 
stamps cancelled in the following man- 
ner and which perhaps have been thrown 
aside as counterfeit or as bearing a 
false cancellation. The obliterating 
stamp was made of brass and was a 
perfect square having five straight, equi- 
distant lines on it, so that an ordinary 
cancellation would have been something 
like this 

I know that in a number of instances I 
have seen the clerks and have done so 
often myself, use the cancelling stamp 
twice, the second time reversed so that 
the postage stamp was cancelled not by 
straight lines, but by small squares. 
This explains such cancellation and 
should give a stamp so obliterated a 
good philatelic standing. Again assur- 
ing you that all the foregoing has not 
been written in a censorious spirit, but 
with the sincere desire to throw as much 
light as possible upon the subject treated 
and to bury forever the claim of the 
essays of the half schilling black on vio- 
let and the three schilling black on rose 
as legitimate postage stamps, for they 
were never issued as such. 

Very sincerely yours, 




Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

NOV17 1947 
JAN 6 1948 

APR 21A953L 

1956 EC 


NOV 1 J956 


AN 5 1957 


6 19B8 


LD 21-100m-9,'47(A5702sl6)476